As previously said, state capitols are one-of-a-kind structures. So it's no surprise that the following nine capitols and three legislative buildings lack a dome or cupola: Alabama (State House where the legislature meets), Alaska, Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, and Virginia.
Only two other capitals don't have a dome: Illinois and Pennsylvania. The State Houses of Massachusetts and Oklahoma were also built in the 19th century but with modifications that include domes.
The final three legislative buildings are in Texas: the Capitol in Austin, the Red Brick Capital Building in Dallas, and the Modernist Capitol building in Fort Worth. All three were designed by American architect Ira Boyd Hill, who also designed several other Texas state buildings including the Texas School for the Deaf in Houston and the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.
So, yes, all capital buildings must have domes.
Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming are the only other states with gold-leafed capital domes: Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wyoming. The Maryland State Capitol building is the only federal building to feature a gold-leafed dome; it was done so in memory of President Abraham Lincoln.
Before 1930, the Capitol dome was painted bright colors, usually red or white. The first year that a gold dome was used as a backdrop for legislative proceedings was in 1931. Before then, Wisconsin's capital city had used gold paint on its copper dome, but this was later covered with green enamel paint.
Pennsylvania's capital city began the tradition of painting their dome red when they opened their new Capitol in 1854. Over the years, they have changed the color of their dome several times - blue, white, and now black - but it has always returned to red during renovations or when they have need of a dramatic scene.
In 2017, the Texas Legislature approved $15 million to restore the dome to its original yellow color after it was covered up for almost 100 years. Before that, it was gray. The dome will be repainted back to its original color before it is put back on display for public viewing.
However, some of the most interesting—and, dare we say, beautiful—state capital buildings in the United States aren't perfect duplicates of the renowned one in Washington. Of course, classical influences abound, but capital buildings from New York to Hawaii come in a variety of styles and sizes. Some are more decorative than others, but they all have three things in common: power, prestige, and money. The modern state capital is where the government lives and works, so these buildings need to be comfortable for many people over a long period of time.
The current U.S. Capitol was completed in 1856, just two years before the end of slavery in America. The building was designed by Thomas Jefferson with input from Benjamin Henry Latrobe, the architect who also worked on George Washington's and John Paul Jones's ships. It features Italianate style architecture, which was popular at the time; today, it would be called neoclassical.
Before the construction of the current Capitol, Congress met in several different locations. The first federal city was Philadelphia, but after seven years it became too small to hold everyone who needed to attend meetings. So, in 1783, the country's founding fathers decided to build another one, this time in Washington, D.C. They chose a site near the White House on land that had been given to them as part of the original settlement agreement.
Those state capital domes erected after the American Civil War that resembled the second national capitol dome alluded to the Federal government and hence to the concept of "the Union." They were intended to honor the states who had seceded from the Federal union, thus demonstrating that they were now able to stand on their own two feet as sovereign powers. The term "capitol" here does not refer to what we would now call a legislative building, but rather to what was then called a "national capital," which was the new federal city being built across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C.
The first 12 state capitols were modeled after Thomas Jefferson's design for the Capitol building in Washington, D.C. However, after the Civil War ended in 1865, no additional state domes were planned until the 20th century. By that time, many cities with large populations had grown beyond their initial boundaries, so it was necessary to consider how best to house both the legislature and the executive branch of government. At that time, several different models were being used around the country, so architects were free to choose whatever system they felt would work best for their communities.
In most cases, the choice before them was between a traditional cupola and some other form of roof.
The United States Capitol is one of the most aesthetically significant and symbolically significant structures in the world. For almost two centuries, it has held the Senate and House of Representatives meeting rooms. The current building was designed by American architect Henry Hobson Richardson and completed in 1855 after 10 years of construction.
Behind the Capitol are the Senate and House office buildings. The Senate Building is more commonly known as the "Long Hall". It was here that much legislation regarding social welfare, foreign relations, and the military was drafted before it was sent to the President for his approval. The House Office Buildings are connected by a bridge called the "Capitol Bridge". A tunnel also connects the two offices buildings under Constitution Avenue.
Both the Long Hall and the Capitol Bridge were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1962. The House Office Buildings were listed together in 1992. All four landmarks are part of the Capitol Park Campus of the U.S. Capitol complex.
You can visit all four of these monuments in one day. You can see them from anywhere in the city with good viewing access. Get information on when the next tour is scheduled at www.visitthecapitol.org or call 1-866-462-6468.
The edifice, which was built in 1901, served as the principal focus for territory governance prior to statehood in 1912. The government initially intended to build a duplicate of the United States Capitol, but the expense of creating a big dome was beyond expensive for the territory, thus a modest copper dome was commissioned in its stead. The building is now used for various purposes including holding legislative sessions and serving as the home of the governor.
The origin of the dome's name is unclear. Some sources claim it was named after Mary Elizabeth "Mother" Jones, a Philadelphia social worker who helped organize the American labor movement; others say it was named after Princess Dashkova, a Russian noblewoman who was loved by Czar Nicholas I. Still others report that it was called "the Great Copper Dome" or "the Little Capitol". It certainly has a prominent place in city architecture and is a popular destination for tourists. Its height makes it one of the most visible features on the Las Vegas Strip.
Statehouses have been built in several different styles over time. This particular building is an example of the Beaux-Arts style, which was popular between about 1885 and 1915. During this period, great wealth was being created by entrepreneurs in the United States. As part of their effort to display their success, many men of means built large homes with lavish interior decorations. These buildings were designed to impress visitors with their wealth and power.