The pyramids were constructed using limestone, granite, basalt, gypsum (mortar), and baked mud bricks. Giza and maybe other locations were used to quarry limestone blocks. Granite was most likely brought upriver from Aswan. Because iron equipment were unavailable, laborers at the quarries carved out the blocks with copper and stone-cutting tools. Limestone is soft, but granitic rocks are harder. The Egyptians probably did not realize how hard granite is until they tried to carve it.
All over the world, people build with rocks that are close at hand. In ancient Egypt, the choice of materials was limited because the transportation system allowed only small quantities to be moved long distances. But even so, most of the rocks used by the Egyptians to construct their monuments were locally available. Only very few exotic stones had to be imported from further away than the desert where they were found.
Some scholars believe that the pyramids were built as tombs for Pharaohs. This is possible, but it's also been suggested that they were religious buildings, or even gas stations! We'll never know for sure because none of the pharaohs who may have been buried there ever returned to claim their own monument.
In conclusion, the pyramids are made of many different kinds of rock, mostly limestone and granite. They are symbols of ancient Egypt and home to many mysterious relics. Even after thousands of years, they are a source of inspiration for modern architects around the world.
According to the most recent evidence, they were composed of "agglomerated" (formed into a ball, clump, or cluster, growing together but not coherently) limestone concrete. Rather of excavating and hauling the blocks into place, the pyramids were erected in situ. The ancient Egyptians made use of limestone that was close at hand, which is why so many buildings look like giant petrified trees.
The ancient Egyptians built with this material, which is why so many structures still exist and have survived the ravages of time. Limestone is one of the most common sedimentary rocks, which means it's made up of layers of old mudcracks and other debris left over from before a lake or sea evaporated. As the lake dried out, the sediment settled to the bottom leaving only its hard stone core visible today.
Limestone is the main ingredient in concrete. It comes in various sizes and shapes depending on how long it has been exposed to the elements; the larger the piece of rock, the longer it has been exposed to air and heat, which causes the calcium carbonate in it to dissolve slowly, resulting in small pieces of limestone that are well-rounded by erosion. This is why ruins made of limestone are usually smaller and more widely spread out than those made of sandstone or granite.
Concrete is just a mixture of cement and gravel or rubble, with water added to form a paste.
Limestone was one of the materials used to construct the Giza Pyramids. A close-up of Egypt's ancient pyramids. Giza is located outside of Cairo, Egypt, and is home to the Pyramids of Giza, one of the most recognizable landmarks of early civilization on the planet. The three pyramids there are the oldest still standing after thousands of years.
The first pyramid was built for King Khafre about 5500 years ago. It is made of limestone with some sandstone and granite included in its composition. The second pyramid is named after its builder, King Khamerer. He lived approximately 40 years later than Khafre. So far only the foundation stones have been found for this pyramid. The third and largest pyramid is called Menkaura after its builder, who lived nearly 200 years after Khamerer. This pyramid also has not yet been fully excavated. However, scientists have already found parts of it that indicate that it was also built from limestone and granite.
In addition to the limestone used to build the pyramids, wood was also employed during the construction process. Some believe that the builders may have used the wood as a source of fuel for cooking or heating their homes, but this is just an assumption. No evidence of any kind has ever been found indicating that the Egyptians used wood for building the pyramids.
Another material used by the Egyptians to build the pyramids is mortar.