Bihac's Fethija Mosque (from 1592) was a Catholic church dedicated to Saint Anthony of Padua (1266). Except for the Church of St. Mary of the Mongols, almost all of Istanbul's churches were turned into mosques during the Ottoman conquest of Anatolia. Some of these churches include Bait Es-Salaam and Mevlana Camii in Bakırköy, Cami Han in Çengelköy, Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Eçme Palace Park, Hagia Sophia, and Prinknjata Tower in İstanbul, all of which are listed below.
So, yes, Bihac still has one mosque built from a former church.
There are also many churches that have been used as mosques over time. In addition to those mentioned above, other examples include Kariye Camii in Çanakkale and Yeşilırmak Monastery in Hozat. Many more can be found in our Countries &; Cities page under "Former Churches &; Cathedrals That Are Now Mosques".
Additionally, some mosques were originally churches. Examples include Alaeddin Camii in Edirne and Selimiye Mosque in Istanbul.
Several Christian churches were transformed into mosques after the Ottoman invasion of Cyprus. More of the Orthodox churches in Northern Cyprus have been converted, and many are currently in the process of becoming mosques. St. Mary's Church in Ayia Napa was built in 1856 and remains one of its kind in Europe. It now serves as a mosque called "Napoca Mahkemesi" (Napoka Court).
Mosques can also be converted into churches. The Greek Cypriot Turkish Catholic Church is an example of such a church. There are also several Protestant churches that have been converted into mosques. One of them is the Bethel Evangelical Church in Daphne, which is now known as "Yeni Cami" (New Mosque).
In conclusion, yes, churches can be turned into mosques.
Spain's Muslim population was greatly reduced during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39). The war ended with the victory of the Nationalists, or Republicans, who were backed by the New World order and led by Francisco Franco. The Nationalists considered Islam a backward religion that had to be replaced with modern Christianity. They banned Islamic practices such as praying in public and forced Muslims to wear identifying badges. Church officials also took over religious education from mosques. When Pope Pius XII died in 1958, King Juan Carlos I appointed a new pope, Paul VI, who encouraged more integration between Catholics and Protestants. The king then announced that all mosques would have three months to close their doors or be turned into churches. Those that could not be used for religious purposes were sold to Christians who wanted to build houses.
What about Jews? Were they persecuted during the Holocaust?
Yes, but only a small number of Jews were killed. The Nationalists saw them as allies against Hitler's Germany, so they protected them. However, many more Jews were expelled from Spain than saved because they could not prove they had Catholic parents.
Under Erdogan's administration, four Byzantine church museums including the Haghia Sophia in Iznik (2011), the Chora Church in Istanbul (2019), and the Haghia Sophia in Istanbul (2020) had been turned to mosques as of 2020. Additionally, several other churches have been converted into mosques under previous administrations.
Conversion of churches into mosques is among the practices banned by the Turkish government. However, this prohibition is not always enforced.
In response to complaints from Christian citizens about these conversions, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that such conversions violate Christians' right to religious freedom. However, no action has been taken against any country for violating this ruling.
Mosques are being converted into churches.
|Current Name||Mosque Name||Year Closed|
|Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba||Great Mosque of Córdoba (Qurṭuba), Aljama Mosque||1236|
|Mosque of Cristo de la Luz||Mezquita Bab-al-Mardum||1186|
|Giralda||Great Mosque of Seville||1248|
|Mezquita de Almonaster la Real|
King Ferdinand III of Castile transformed the mosque into a cathedral when Christians seized Cordoba in 1236. Later, a cathedral was erected in the heart of the original mosque, resulting in the modern Cordoba Mosque-Cathedral. The original minaret remains as its iconic symbol.
Cordoba is one of Spain's most beautiful cities and has been listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. It was founded in 738 BC by the Phoenicians and became an important center for Christianity before the arrival of Columbus. The city suffered greatly during the Spanish Civil War but has since recovered and is now considered to be one of Spain's top tourist destinations.
The people of Cordoba are known for being very religious. There are more than 200 mosques in Cordoba city alone. However, there aren't many churches in Cordoba because it was believed that each new building would destroy a part of the city's heritage. In fact, there are only two buildings left from the medieval period: the Cathedral and the Aljafería. The former was built between 1238 and 1568 while the latter was constructed between 1442 and 1506.
In 1884, King Carlos IV donated land for the construction of a new diocesan palace which later became the University Library.
The current location of the Cathedral-Mosque of Cordoba was once a Christian church dedicated to Saint Vincent of Saragossa, which was split and shared by Christians and Muslims during the Umayyad invasion of Hispania. The Islamic authorities ordered that a new mosque be built instead, which would serve as a place of worship for both Muslims and Christians.
In fact, the original cathedral was very likely also used as a mosque on occasion. The Muslim conquest of Spain was not completely unified under one ruler, but rather consisted of independent tribes who adopted Islam but retained much of their cultural identity (including the use of mass production techniques like brick building). Thus there would have been times when religious leaders needed to convene a community meeting where everyone could participate, but they couldn't all fit into the cathedral. A separate mosque would have served this purpose among others.
After the conquest, the new cathedral became the main place of worship in Cordoba. But since it was shared with Muslims, many Christians felt threatened and forced to move out of the city. Those who remained built smaller churches around the old mosque. Over time these became important centers of Christianity in the area.
There are several factors that support this theory. First of all, the original cathedral was quite small so it's possible that during its early years it wasn't used exclusively as a house of prayer.