The weather was chilly, but not unusually so; outdoor temperatures ranged from 1 to 10 degrees. With the heater on full blast, some of the rooms reached over 20 degrees. However, many more just made it to the age of 16. The home was freezing since there weren't enough radiators. There were only a few windows per floor; they were usually covered by thick, heavy drapes to keep out the light and heat.
Tudor homes were built with stone foundations and wood frames with thick walls and small windows. The roof was made of tiles or thatch. There were no central heating systems in use during the Tudor period. Instead, fires were kept burning in large open hearths for warmth. When it got too hot inside, people opened up window spaces to allow in cooler air.
There were also no indoor toilets. People did their business outside in a special area called a "close" (this is where all the smells came from). Or they used buckets filled with sand or dirt as toilet papers.
Nowadays, we know how important it is to maintain a constant temperature within our homes. During the Tudor period, this concept didn't exist. People simply didn't worry about heat loss during winter or heat gain in summer. They lived with the conditions as they found them and tried to be as comfortable as possible under these circumstances.
Overall, the castle was frigid in the winter, although not as cold as the exterior. A farm home would have been warmer because it was smaller and housed both people and farm animals. Later medieval castles featured many rooms, but only those that were frequently used were heated with fires and braziers. Early modern castles tended to be much larger and had greater resources available for heating them.
The temperature inside the castle dropped rapidly during the night due to the lack of circulation caused by all the walls surrounding it. During the day, the heat from the sun was trapped within the castle walls, but at night time, this heat was lost through the doorways and windows.
There were two ways to keep the castle warm during the winter months: with fire or with ice. The ice wall was a stone structure built into the side of a hill or mountain that acted as an insulation buffer between the harsh environment outside and the more hospitable environment inside the castle. In the winter, workers would cut blocks of ice from local lakes and ponds and transport them to the castle walls where they were placed in strategic locations around the property to act as bulletproof glass for the building. They looked like large, flat rocks covered in ice and were useful for preventing livestock from getting out onto the frozen ground.
Fire was also used to keep buildings warm. Fireplaces were popular in homes, but they were expensive to build and maintain and thus only rich people could afford them.
The fundamental issue with Victorian homes is that when they were created, the builders had considerably lower expectations of what the minimum internal temperature should be in winter. Originally, Victorian dwellings had no insulation and provided little shelter from the cold or heat. They relied on fireplaces for warmth and by not covering openings such as windows and doors they allowed cold air into the house and hot air out. Today's modern homes are much more energy efficient and have higher quality construction but they aren't always better insulated than their older counterparts. Many old homes were built with thin walls and few interior finishes so there's very little room for error when it comes to heating or cooling them accurately.
As mentioned, most Victorians had no insulation inside their homes and so they tended to be quite a bit colder in winter and hotter in summer than modern buildings. Fireplaces were the only way to heat these rooms back then and so people didn't worry about how you placed your wood in relation to the blaze. They just wanted a steady supply of it! In fact, some houses weren't even heated at all back then because electricity wasn't common yet and so they relied on springwater piped into tanks located in the basement or ground floor. This water was used to heat radiators attached to the exterior walls of the home.
In summer, things were also pretty uncomfortable because there was hardly any ventilation.