There is no column to support the slab's weight. The weight on the slab is directly transferred to the walls, then to the foundation, and lastly to the earth. The load is not supported by the walls. This structural structure is ideally suited for all types of building. It can be used for small single-story buildings as well as large multistory structures.
Slab construction is commonly used in architecture because it allows for easy modification or expansion of an area. Slabs are available in different sizes and shapes. They can be flat or have cross-sections such as T-shaped, L-shaped, or X-shaped. The depth of the slab must be at least as deep as the highest point within its footprint.
The weight of the slab itself must be borne by other parts of the building than the walls. If the slab were to be placed over concrete columns, for example, the column spacing would have to be reduced so that the slab does not collapse under its own weight. This is called "self-supporting" and is an important factor in determining how this type of building design can be used.
Slab construction is used extensively in Japan where it is known as tiled roof construction. The most common method of finishing a tiled surface is to use terracotta tiles. These are easily installed on the roof and come in a wide variety of colors and styles.
In multistory structures with slab-beam-column construction, it is common practice to employ stronger strength concrete in columns rather than beams and slabs. The concrete is poured in phases as follows: 1. High-strength concrete is used to cast the column all the way to the bottom of the beam. 2. Standard-strength concrete is used to finish the top of the beam and create a flat surface for nailing or screwing the structure together. 3. High-strength concrete is again used to cast the next column up.
The reason for this is that if the beam were made out of high-strength concrete, then the entire weight of the building would be supported by the column at its base, eliminating the need for a foundation. This is not recommended unless you have ample room above your ceiling to set the height of the beam without hitting plumbing or wiring. If this is not the case, then you should consider using the standard-strength concrete for the beam instead.
High-strength concrete can be used in other areas of the structure as well where greater strength is needed. For example, high-strength concrete can be used in floor joists instead of steel ones to reduce costs. However, this is not commonly done because it is difficult to obtain adequate support for such heavy floors without using steel supports underneath.
Strip foundations are made out of a continuous strip of material, commonly concrete, that is constructed centrally underneath load-bearing walls. The foundation slab serves as the base for any additional floors that may be built above it. Strip foundations are typically used where weight restrictions prevent the use of conventional footings, such as when using cinder block or other light materials for wall construction.
The central portion of the foundation slab is designed to support the entire weight of any additional floors that will be built. The height of this central portion is called the "depth of foundation." The depth of foundation should be sufficient to accommodate any flooring materials that might need to be laid over the foundation (such as carpet or hardwood). Floors added after the foundation has been completed will not be able to be supported by the original foundation because there is no way to make a solid connection between the floor and the bottom of the foundation. These additional floors must therefore be supported by some other means (such as scaffolding).
The exterior edges of the foundation slab are called "flanges". These flanges should be flat and free of any cracks or holes that could allow water to enter the slab. The foundation slab is poured first, before any walls are built around it.
Columns may be built to withstand lateral forces for the purposes of wind or earthquake engineering. Because of the comparable stress circumstances, other compression members are frequently referred to be "columns." Columns are commonly employed to support beams or arches that support the top portions of walls or ceilings. They may also be used as decorative features or to provide additional lightness and airiness to a room.
The word "pillar" comes from the Latin pila, meaning "ball," because they were originally shaped like small spheres. Today, these balls of stone or brick are called "pilasters." A pilaster is a short column or wall decoration. It can be made of many different materials including wood, metal, and concrete. In architecture, a pilaster is a short, thick post or column used as a base for an architrave or cornice. When used as a doorpost, it provides support for a doorframe or doorbell button.
In medieval churches, large columns supported the roof. These were called "naves" (Latin for "walls"). The space enclosed by the nave's walls was called the "transept" (from the Latin trahere, "to draw out"). Across from each transept was a smaller room called a "chapel." This came to mean "room" in English because early chapels were simply small rooms where people could pray.
A concrete slab is a popular structural feature seen in modern structures that consists of a flat, horizontal surface constructed of cast concrete. These slabs are characterized as either ground-bearing or suspended. If a slab rests directly on the foundation, it is ground-bearing; otherwise, it is suspended. The type of foundation required for a particular application determines which type of slab is best.
Slab construction is used instead of beams and columns because it is much easier to make a single casting than it is to construct several individual components. Also, slabs are usually more stable than beams because they cannot move like a beam would if it were loaded on one end. Finally, slabs are easy to cover with wallpaper, paint, etc., while beams would require further treatment before they could be used safely.
There are two types of slab foundations: direct-on-grade and underground. A direct-on-grade slab does not penetrate the ground but rests on the soil. It can be made of concrete with deep holes called "pockets" (for added stability) that hold the dirt underneath it so it doesn't slide off. This type of foundation is easiest to build and install, but it shows through your house walls so you will need to decide whether this affects your desire to have a concrete slab. An underground slab goes completely under the ground floor of your home and contains an opening for a drainpipe or water line.
A slab foundation is generally composed of concrete that is 4"–6" thick in the middle. For drainage or as a cushion, the concrete slab is frequently put atop a layer of sand. Crawlspaces are not present in slab-built homes, and there is no area beneath the floor. The entire house is raised off the ground on pillars or blocks. This type of construction is used for its weight-bearing ability and its resistance to earthquake activity.
Slab foundations are often preferred over other types of foundations because they are easy to build and durable. They are also less expensive than poured-concrete foundations and, unlike footings, do not require backfilling after they have been built. However, these properties also make slab foundations difficult to move if needed for other purposes or when a change in ownership occurs.
Slabs can be problematic if they contain openings such as windows or doors which cannot be covered by simple paint. Over time, heat will get trapped inside the slab, causing it to crack. Moisture can also find its way into cracks through which it can cause wood framing members under the slab to rot. Cracks may also appear due to natural causes such as an earthquake. In this case, they should be repaired by a professional builder or contractor who has experience with this type of foundation.