Republican Roman architecture was influenced by the Etruscans, Rome's early kings, who in turn were affected by Greek architecture. Beginning in the late sixth century B.C.E., the Temple of Jupiter on Rome's Capitoline Hill retains all the markings of Etruscan construction. The Greeks introduced architraves and metopes with sculptured imagery that reflected their culture. They also are responsible for perfecting the use of concrete for building purposes.
What is an architrave? An architrave is a horizontal beam that supports the lintel or roof joist of a window or doorway. In classical architecture, it often has an ornamental profile carved or painted to match that of the other members of the doorframe or window frame. The Romans adopted this feature from the Greeks.
What is a metope? A metope is a flat panel depicting one of the twelve Olympian gods which was used as a decorative element in front of a wall or entranceway. A metope is usually about two feet high and four feet wide.
Who is the greatest architect of all time? This is a hard question to answer because each person has his or her own take on what constitutes great architecture. However, if we were to choose someone it would be Antonin Dubuclet. He was a French architect who was born in 1730 and died in 1791.
Etruscan architecture's vaulted ceilings, arches, Tuscan columns, and magnificent city gates would influence and inspire subsequent Roman builders. Indeed, Etruscan builders were responsible for Rome's most famous early temple, the Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, which was built in the sixth century BCE. The Etruscans also created many of Rome's roads, canals, and public buildings. Unfortunately, none of their actual structures have survived, except for a few tombs and temples.
Rome's earliest settlers used wood and stone for building purposes. But after the extinction of the Roman monarchy and the establishment of the republic in 509 BCE, architects designed and built houses with bricks and tiles instead. They also erected public buildings such as theaters and basilicas. These structures used marble, granite, and other durable materials available in large quantities in the empire's capital city.
The Etruscans may have been the first people to use concrete in Europe. This new material was used extensively by the Romans for building bridges, roads, and aqueducts. Concrete has the property of hardening when exposed to air, so it can support heavy loads without collapsing. It is also resistant to heat and chemicals. Modern engineers have improved on this material over time by adding steel rebar inside the concrete to give it more strength and make it less likely to collapse under pressure or load.
The civilization of the Etruscans introduced the Romans to Greek concepts and new religious practices. The Etruscans taught the Romans engineering and construction techniques. They also had a significant impact on the classical Roman architectural style. The Romans adopted many aspects of the Etruscan culture including their religion, music, language, and art.
Rome was founded by Italian people who were fleeing the chaos of its expansionist neighbor to the east, the Republic of Venice. Over time, these refugees became known as "Latins" or "Romans". Although they came from all over Italy, the Latin population consisted mainly of speakers of Italian languages. By 300 BC, even those Italians who remained outside the Roman Empire identified themselves primarily with the language of their surrounding communities rather than with the empire-wide language of their ancestors. It is therefore not surprising that the words used by the ancient writers to describe the Italians are all related to language: "Latin" was the common term for anyone living within the Roman borders, while "Gallic" described those who spoke in accordance with the culture of the neighboring Gauls.
Within a few decades of its founding, the new state had absorbed territories with distinct cultural identities including Etruria to the north and Sicily to the south.
The Etruscans had a tremendous impact on ancient Roman civilization, and the Romans acquired many of their own cultural and artistic traditions, including gladiatorial fighting, hydraulic engineering, temple construction, and religious ritual, among other things. This influence can be seen in everything from the language we use today to the food we eat. The Etruscans introduced Rome to advanced metalworking technologies which were later adopted by the Romans themselves.
The Etruscans were one of the most powerful nations of antiquity, but they also had their problems. They were conquered by the Romans in about 500 B.C., but this did not stop them from maintaining their own government and army for another 200 years. Also, during this time they invaded Italy several times, forcing the Romans to fight back each time. In fact, according to some historians, the Etruscans were finally defeated by Caesar in 59 B.C. and were forced to become slaves or leave their country.
However, the Etruscans are still considered to be one of the founders of modern Europe because they played an important role in spreading their culture across the continent. For example, they are responsible for designing and building many of the temples found in Greece and Rome. And even today, people all over Europe can trace their ancestry back to Etruscan settlers.