Structures that support the brick wythe on shelf angles, often on each story, must have horizontal expansion joints beneath each shelf angle. To handle the differential movement of greater story heights or if a shelf angle supports more than one story of brickwork, larger expansion joints may be necessary. These can be created by filling the joint with mortar or concrete.
Expansion joints are also required in floors and ceilings to allow for change in temperature and other factors that cause building materials to expand and contract. Floors should be made of solid material with no open spaces. Ceilings should be able to accommodate growth without damage. If you live in an area where temperatures fluctuate greatly, you should consider installing heating/cooling systems to regulate room temperature.
Brick walls should not be built without expansion joints. The presence of joints will help prevent the wall from becoming unstable as it changes shape with temperature fluctuations.
You should install expansion joints even if you plan to cover them with wallpaper or paint. The material used to cover expansion joints should be flexible so it does not become brittle over time and require replacement. Some types of joint materials can be painted to match your home's exterior color, while others will look better if they are covered with caulk.
Installing expansion joints is very simple. First, measure off the distances between the floor and ceiling where future joints will go.
Examine your structure to check if it has "header courses" of bricks. Unreinforced masonry benefits from these rows of bricks flipped endways every 5–6 rows. If every row of bricks appears the same, the structure may need to be strengthened. Reinforcement includes metal ties or plastic tubes within the mortar bed.
If you suspect problems with your brick foundation, call a professional immediately. Damage to the foundation of your house can be caused by things such as shifting soil levels or underground water flows. Serious damage can lead to major costs for repair. Less serious damage can be difficult or impossible to detect unless you know what to look for.
Brick foundations are the most common type of foundation used in residential construction. They are made up of rectangular blocks that are placed side-by-side and covered with dirt or other material. The weight of the building above the brick base supports it, rather than being supported by the brick itself.
The main advantage of this type of foundation is its durability. Brick is very hard to destroy once it's been laid down in proper conditions. It can also provide thermal mass, which helps regulate the temperature inside your home during hot summers and cold winters. This is especially important if you live in an area that experiences large swings in temperature.
Disadvantages of brick foundations include their cost and lack of flexibility.
Brick masonry arches are built using temporary shoring, known as "centering," or permanent supports, such as structural steel angles. Centering is utilized to maintain the weight of a brick masonry arch as well as the loads it supports until the arch itself has achieved adequate strength. The centering may be removed once the arch has reached its intended use.
In brick veneer buildings, brick arches are used instead of wood for their decorative effect and because they require less material than wood forms. Brick veneers are also more durable and do not rot like wood, so older buildings may have brick veneers that include archways.
Brick veneers are applied to concrete foundations or footings, with the mortar in between the bricks holding them together. The base coat of brick is usually a lighter color than the finish coat on top, which is why unfinished brick can look white or grey. Larger pieces of brick veneer must be mortared together before they can be laid on the building, while smaller pieces can be placed directly over the sheathing or framing.
The type of brick arch used in brick veneer buildings depends on several factors such as size, number, and style of openings, but generally includes two types of brick: header and stretcher. Headers are the vertical portions of the arch that contain the opening for light and ventilation. Stretchers are the horizontal members connecting the headers together.
Every concrete slab, whether within (basements, garages, etc.) or outside (driveways, patios, entry, etc.), must have horizontal and vertical joints every eight feet. Expansion joints are spaces between concrete slabs that function as a buffer for expansion on hot days and contraction on cold days. They should be at least 1 inch wide and no more than 2 inches deep. The purpose of the joint is to allow water to drain away from the house and allow some movement without breaking the seal.
Concrete driveways are used not only for appearance, but also for safety. The space between the slabs allows water to drain away from the vehicle tires so that they do not become hydroplaned. It is important to maintain the expansion joints in your driveway so that it continues to serve its purpose.
Expansion joints can be any color except red, if they are colored they should be white or light gray. You should also use a joint sealer to keep out dirt and grime that may wear away at the concrete surface.
The best time to install expansion joints is when pouring the concrete floor. This will allow you to see where they should go and make them easily while keeping you within the required spacing.
Because brick structures do not require inner walls, they are mostly employed in industries and warehouses where big open areas are advantageous. There is no framing or sill in a brick structure. The joists are suspended over large cross beams that are tenoned directly into the masonry. The spaces between the bricks are filled with rubble or crushed rock.
Brick houses were originally built without any internal frame at all. But as time went by, it became necessary to provide some kind of support for the roof load so that buildings did not collapse under their own weight. This was done by inserting wooden pegs into holes drilled into the side of the wall near the top corner. These pegs served to attach the wallboard to the studs inside the house.
In modern brick houses, the interior skeleton is usually made out of steel or aluminum channeling attached to the foundation and ceiling joists with metal clips. The channels provide a place to mount lights and other electrical fixtures. The skeleton is covered with sheathing first, then insulated, and finally finished with drywall or plaster.
There is one thing that may come as a surprise: yes, brick houses do have wood frames! The outer walls are constructed using mortared thin layers of brick. Between each layer of brick, there is an air space called a "joint". When the exterior walls are completed, this becomes the frame for the house.
A wythe is a one-unit-thick vertical segment of a masonry wall. Most older masonry constructions are made up of an outside wythe of brick (what we call the building's exterior façade) and an inside wythe of brick (to which the drywall is attached). Modern buildings often have wood or steel framing, behind which is placed sheathing and siding. The word "wythe" comes from the Old English word wite, meaning "white." In old English buildings, the word usually refers to a thin veneer of stone or brick used as a facing material.
Brick wythes are common in Virginia architecture. They provide insulation against heat and cold, help bricks retain their color, and act as simple support for the roof. Brick walls with wooden beams inserted into the wall cavity are called wattle-and-daub walls. This type of construction was commonly used in Europe before the introduction of metal tools. The same technique was also used by some Native American tribes.
In modern buildings, wythes are used to describe small panels that are built into the wall surface to provide decorative features or to increase its strength. For example, a wythe may be constructed out of two bricks or stones that are pressed together to make a strong but thin block. Or, it may be formed of wood or concrete. The term "wythe corner" is used to describe where two walls meet at a right angle.