In contemporary Rome, monuments, buildings, and parks may be found on five of the seven hills: the Aventine, Caelian, Esquiline, Quirinal, and Viminal Hills. Rome's city hall is located on the Capitoline Hill, while the Palatine Hill is part of the primary archaeological region. The term "seven hills" is often used to describe all the peaks of Rome's central core.
The phrase "seven hills" was first used by the Roman historian Livy (59 BC – 17 AD). He was writing about the early history of Rome, before it became an empire. According to Livy, when the Romans arrived in Italy they were initially welcomed by the Sabines who lived on the Seven Hills of Rome. But the two tribes soon fought each other for power, which led to war between them and the Romans. In this way, the idea that Rome was founded on seven hills came about.
However, the phrase "seven hills" may also have been used by other ancient authors before or after Livy. For example, Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD), a Roman author and naturalist, wrote about the Seven Hills of Rome in his book Natural History. And according to him, these hills included the Aventine, Caelian, Esquiline, Palatine, Pincian, and Quirinal Hills.
The Seven Hills of Rome are a collection of hills upon which the ancient city of Rome was constructed. Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, and Aventine are the other hills (known respectively in Latin as the Mons Capitolinus, Mons Quirinalis, Mons Viminalis, Mons Esquilinus, Mons Caelius, and Mons Aventinus). The Romans considered these hills to be sacred and placed temples on some of them.
There are also many smaller mountains within the city limits. One of the most famous is Monte Mario, which is part of a range known as the Alban Hills. This mountain serves as a popular recreational area with trails for walking, running, and biking. There are also tennis courts, football fields, and archery ranges on Monte Mario.
In addition, there are several large bridges across the Tiber River within the city limits of Rome. These include the Ponte Sant'Angelo, which is an ancient bridge that spans the Tiber near the Vatican City State; and the Ponte di Largo, which connects Via Latina with the Villa Borghese through the heart of Rome.
Rome has also been called the "Mountains" because of its high elevation compared to most other cities in Italy. The city is situated on a series of hills known as the Roman Forum, which is an open space dominated by three steep peaks: Capitolium, Velianum, and Palatine. They form a natural barrier between the central district and the rest of Rome.
To clarify, the Palatine, Aventine, Capitoline, Janiculan, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Caelian, Pincian, and Vatican are the ten hills of Rome, according to Mary Beard, a classicist and writer for the UK Times. She claims that it is unclear which of Rome's seven hills should be counted. The author of this article will use the terms "the ten hills" and "the seven hills of Rome" interchangeably.
The list below identifies the major landmarks on each hill along with their heights in feet (ft) above sea level:
Palatine - 415 ft Capitoline - 450 ft Janiculan - 460 ft Quirinal - 485 ft Viminal - 490 ft Esquiline - 500 ft Caelian - 530 ft Pincian - 540 ft Vatican - 570 ft
This list may not be complete. If you know of any other features that are only found on certain hills, please mention them in the comments section below.
Now, about those names...
All these names can be traced back to the early history of Rome. They reflect the various functions that each hill served over time. The Palatine was the first hill to be settled, being close to the center of ancient Rome. It was also the most important, since it was here that the kings of Rome were crowned. The others were later settled by colonists from the Palatine.
The Seven Hills of Rome depict the city's original limits. The first colonies of Rome began on these seven hills, which were also the ones defended by the Servian Walls. Early Roman tribes lived on the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, near to what is now the Roman Forum. As they grew in power and prestige, other Romans moved into areas with better land for farming, so that by the time of Christ, these newly settled districts covered most of the modern city of Rome.
The first settlers built their houses on platforms or mounds called "tumuli" because they look like little mounds of dirt. These were later used as places of worship or burial grounds. There are many tumuli in and around Rome; some are still visible today under streets or buildings. But many more have been destroyed by building projects over the years - including many that were important relics from early times.
It is because of this that archaeologists are so interested in the findings beneath modern-day cities. They can tell you much about ancient Rome by looking at its remains under modern-day streets and buildings.
One such find was made in 1595 when Italian workers digging a canal found the remains of a large villa under the street they were excavating. Inside the house, they found sculptures, fine furniture, and even food that had been left behind during evacuation of the house before the start of the excavation.