Around 2550 B.C., Pharaoh Khufu launched the first Giza pyramid project. His Great Pyramid is the tallest structure in Giza, rising 481 feet (147 meters) above the plateau. Each of the estimated 2.3 million stone blocks weighs between 2.5 and 15 tons. The blocks were hauled from a source near the pyramid site and moved a short distance before being lifted into place. The Egyptians used simple tools to cut the rocks into the right shape each time they built the pyramids.
The size of the blocks that went into building the pyramids has been a topic of discussion for many years. Some have argued that such large stones could not have been transported far enough to be new when workers finished them off as tomb markers. But scientists have now found a way around this problem by examining the wear on some of the blocks. It seems that even though they were moved a few miles, they must have been used repeatedly because of all the little holes caused by tool marks on some of the faces.
There are several theories about how the Egyptians moved the blocks. Some think they were brought in boats along with other cargo from as far away as 410 miles (660 km). Others believe they were carried by work crews based at the sites of future pyramids. Still others think there were special teams of people who traveled around the country with heavy loads on their backs.
The average weight of the stone blocks used to construct Giza's Great Pyramid has been calculated to be 2.5 tonnes (2.5 tons). The exact number of blocks used in the construction of the pyramid is unknown. The pyramid was never fully excavated, so evidence such as stonework and rubble that may have contained valuable information about the construction process were lost when the area it was found in was developed.
In 1877, British archaeologist Charles Newton made an estimation of block weights based on measurements of two sides of the pyramid. He estimated that the heaviest block used in its construction had a mass of about 2.5 tonnes and the lightest one about 0.4 tonnes.
More recently, in 1998, American archaeologists conducted an intensive study of the pyramid using ground-penetrating radar. They concluded that each block of limestone used in building the pyramid was equivalent to 7.5 yd3 or 6.5 cu meters of dirt. This implies a total weight for all the blocks of about 60,000 kg (132,000 lb), which is very close to Newton's estimate. However, the actual weight of a single block used in construction of the pyramid has not been determined by this study.
The Khufu Pyramid Several of the Giza pyramids are among the biggest buildings ever constructed. Khufu's Pyramid is the biggest Egyptian pyramid ever built. Dates and heights of construction
|Pyramid / Pharaoh||Sneferu|
|Reign||c. 2612–2589 BCE|
|Height||104 meters (341 feet)|
The most renowned Egyptian pyramids may be seen on the outskirts of Cairo at Giza. Several of the Giza pyramids are among the biggest buildings ever constructed. Giza's Pyramid of Khufu is the greatest Egyptian pyramid. It is the sole surviving example of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Other famous pyramids can be found near Dahshur, Saqqara, and Heliopolis (present-day El-Rashid).
Pyramids were built by many different cultures across Africa and Asia as early as 2,500 years ago. But it was only with the emergence of the Nile River Valley civilization around 3,000 years ago that large numbers of people worked on a large scale to build these monuments to the dead. The Egyptians built several hundred pyramids over the course of three thousand years; their neighbors in Sudan may have had a hand in some of them as well.
Why did the ancient Egyptians build such huge structures? Many scholars believe they were designed as tombs for the pharaohs. Others suggest that they were used as astronomical observatories or temples. Whatever their original purpose, today we know that they are great feats of architecture that took millions of hours of hard work to construct.
Egyptian pyramids were important not only because they were large but also because they were unique. No other culture before or since has been able to create such structures.
The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the world's most famous structures. The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and biggest of the Giza pyramid complex, which borders modern-day Giza in Greater Cairo, Egypt. It is estimated to be about 4500 years old.
The pyramid was built for Pharaoh Khufu (also spelled Chephren), who took power around 2590 BC. According to traditional Egyptian history, Khufu told his court historian that he would like to build a structure so magnificent that it would outshine the sun. The historian supposedly wrote down what Khufu said, and that became the first stone pyramid ever built.
Modern scientists have also proved that the Pharaohs did not even know how to work with iron before them. They knew only wood and stone, which is why many archaeologists believe that the pyramids were built by slaves rather than by kings. However, this does not mean that they could not build them themselves; only that they did not have the tools needed for such a task at their disposal. It is also possible that some Egyptians may have helped their rulers build the pyramids as an act of kindness, but again, without any tools other than their own hands and feet.