The piles used as a foundation for small structures down to a level of about 4 m below the surface are referred to as "short bore," referring to their comparably modest length in comparison to the considerably longer piles used for bigger buildings. Short bored piles are typically 2 to 4 m in length...
The hole into which the pile is driven must be at least 1.5 times as large as the pile itself, with a maximum depth of about 30 cm (12 inches). The hole should be slightly oversize so that when the pile is pulled out it can be reburied with the same piece of wood. The reason for this procedure is that if the hole is too small, then the end will break off when the pile is lifted out of the ground, preventing it from being reused.
Short bored piles are usually made of maple or hazel, but some builders use sycamore or locust as well. The diameter of the pile should be about 5 mm (1/4 inch) for good stability and to allow water to drain away from the base of the structure.
These piles can be very expensive, especially if you need a lot of them. It's best to buy enough wood to last for several years since the holes will get deeper over time due to weathering and leaching.
A concrete slab poured immediately at ground level is the shallowest foundation. It's often a four- to six-inch-deep concrete mat with gravel beneath for drainage. The skybridge concept adds another layer of concrete over the shallow foundation, forming a bridge between buildings.
The deep foundation is required by law in some cities for any building over 10 stories high. It's usually made of stone or brick, and can be as much as 18 inches thick. These heavy weights are used to prevent buildings from shifting in windy areas where they could be damaged.
The middle foundation type uses blocks of concrete held in place by steel rebar for its depth; these can range from 2 feet to 4 feet thick. They're ideal for smaller buildings or those that won't bear too much weight.
The shallowest foundation type is called a cap slab or coping. It's usually formed by pouring concrete over a base of bricks or stones, which act as anchors for the slab when it's dry. The concrete is at least 3 inches thick in most cases, but it can be as much as 6 inches or more. Smaller buildings may use thinner slabs for their height/width ratio isn't so great. But regardless of thickness, all concrete foundations require periodic maintenance to ensure they remain stable.
A 4-inch slab is a reasonable thickness for a standard shed. This concrete floor may be placed in most locations over a 4-inch compacted gravel base. This necessitates an excavation of at least 6 inches in order to create a slab that is 2 inches above the surrounding ground. The excavated area should be filled after placing the concrete slab to prevent water from entering the ground around its edges.
A thicker floor can be laid over a larger base. For example, a 6-inch slab can be placed over a 12-inch deep foundation. The extra depth gives the slab more capacity to withstand traffic and other loads without cracking.
The minimum required thickness for a shed floor depends on how much weight it has to bear. If you plan to install a floor that will bear any significant amount of weight, such as 100 pounds per square foot or more, then you should use concrete with a minimum of 3 inches of material.
If the floor will only support up to 10 pounds per square foot, then you can get by with a thinner slab. Concrete with a thickness of 2 to 3 inches is suitable for this application.
As long as you choose a slab of sufficient thickness, the type of wood used to build your shed shouldn't matter as long as it's stable. The best option is a floor that can grow with your business!
Poured concrete foundation walls less than 8 feet tall with soil 6 or 7 feet deep against the wall can typically be 8 inches thick and perform pretty well. When you get higher or have more dirt pushing against the wall, you should raise the thickness to 10 inches. Then if anything pushes against the wall, it will compress some of the air inside the block causing it to become more rigid and able to support itself better.
Thicker walls are always better, but even 8-inch-thick walls can sustain significant weight when used as footings for buildings as long as they are dug out properly and filled with stable material such as gravel or paver stones.
The best way to find out how high you can go is to build one wall and see what happens. Then build another slightly smaller wall and see what happens to it. You can keep doing this until you reach a point where the wall starts to lean against itself because there's no more room behind it. That's when you know you've reached your maximum height.
Things to consider when choosing a footing depth: The amount of space you have available behind the wall, the type of soil behind the wall, expected rainfall intensity. In general, you want at least 1 foot of space behind the wall so that you have enough room to install exterior finishes like siding or windows without hitting the wall.
As you can see, hefty homes on poor soil require footings that are at least 2 feet broad. However, the lightest structures on the strongest soil need footings as shallow as 7 or 8 inches. That's the same as stating you have no footing against an 8-inch-thick wall. You might be able to build a house with no footings at all on top of solid rock, but most builders don't go to such extremes.
In general, the broader your footing, the stronger its foundation will be. Footing width shouldn't vary by more than 10 percent from the overall house width.
The depth of a footing depends on how much soil there is under the house. So if you want a deep footing, dig one that goes down at least as far as the average soil depth in your region.
Some regions require footings to be deeper for fire safety reasons. In areas where earthquakes are likely, buildings must have adequate earthquake protection systems in place before building permits can be issued. This includes having quality seismic straps on all exterior walls. These are chains used during rehabilitation work after an earthquake to keep people from touching any part of the exterior wall without wearing protective gear. If an unreinforced masonry wall is going up, then seismic straps should be installed before a bricklayer starts working on the wall.