During the Byzantine and Romanesque periods, the architectural style evolved into something much more elegant. During this time (527-1200), the bulk of architecture began to employ brick instead of stone, forever altering the way structures were built. Brick is an easy and quick material to work with, which allows builders to create large structures in a short amount of time. They also allow for buildings to be constructed without using too much wood, which would degrade over time.
After the fall of the Roman Empire in Europe, building techniques and materials changed again. New styles of architecture began to appear, such as the Gothic and Renaissance styles. During the Gothic period (400-1450), churches were built that used pointed arches and steeply pitched roofs made of tile or shingles. These designs are still used today, although they are often modified with windows and doors that are a bit larger than what was expected back then.
The Renaissance brought about new ideas in design and technology that had never been seen before. Architects began to take inspiration from nature during this time, creating designs that were based on plants and trees. They also used advanced mathematics to calculate how much concrete should be poured for a given structure, enabling builders to have some degree of control over where things will go once they're finished.
Brick and stone building rapidly supplanted timber structures beginning with the Tang Dynasty. Building projects like as the Zhaozhou Bridge (finished in 605) and the Xumi Pagoda are early instances of this change (built in 636). The popularity of brick and stone construction was due to their durability and cost effectiveness. Brick and stone buildings could also be easily destroyed by fire, allowing room for new construction.
Tang architects were influenced by both Chinese and foreign styles. They built using local materials such as wood, bamboo, clay, and dry-laid stone. However, they also incorporated features from other countries including Germany, France, and Italy. For example, the German architect Gunther von Hausegger may have designed the Liuhuang Temple in Hangzhou. He has been credited with many other buildings in the city including the Yuantong Temple and the Yueling Lou Church.
One feature that is unique to the Tang is the use of bird's-eye views in architectural drawings. These drawings show how a structure would look from different angles or from above, giving the designer an idea of how it will look when complete.
The Tang also saw the development of new types of buildings. One type of building that arose during this time period is called a "temple town". Temple towns contained temples of every size from small neighborhood shrines to large national monuments.
The Archaic period was a time of significant architectural creativity. The temples, its most important structures, grow more elaborate and subjected to strict symmetry. The wooden elements of the top building were gradually replaced by stone, and new construction techniques were created. The end of the Archaic period is usually dated from about 600 to 500 BC.
During the Archaic period, new types of buildings appeared in the American continent. They are called "Archaic" because they are built without using bricks or concrete.
These buildings are made of wood and have flat roofs with no walls except for some special cases. The doors and windows are made of wood too. In warmer climates, such as in North America, these buildings had only one floor. But in colder regions, such as in Europe, they often had several floors.
People used trees as a source of fuel and for building materials. They built their houses out of either log cabins or plank buildings. There was no iron tooling at this time. People made do with what nature provided them. As you can see, the American continent was not inhabited yet by humans. It was still being discovered by different cultures who moved there looking for land and resources.
The first people came to America around 20,000 years ago. Scientists think that they may have come from Asia through either a southern or northern route.
The actual birth of architecture may be traced back to the Neolithic period, about 10,000 BC, or simply when humans stopped living in caves and began making their homes the way they wanted them to appear and feel. Architecture involves the design and construction of buildings, but it also includes sites such as temples and tombs that do not have physical structures themselves but which serve to express an idea or belief.
In modern times, the word has taken on a more technical meaning, referring to the planning, design, and supervision of buildings or other structures. The terms "architectural" and "structural" are used interchangeably today.
Before the 19th century, "the art of building" included carpentry, masonry, and engineering, all under the general name of construction. Architecture was seen as a separate profession only since then. Before that time, people called architects actually worked under one of these names alone or even with others. For example, Thomas Jefferson was both an architect and engineer. He is considered the first American architect because of this dual role.
Today's definition of architecture is much broader than its early-modern usage, including elements such as site analysis, interior design, and urban planning. However, these aspects of architecture are now treated as part of another field known as "interior design."