Many of the design elements seen in Italian gardens were found in French Renaissance gardens, but with more control over nature and enhanced perspective and space. The Domaine Royal de Chateau-Gaillard garden is regarded as the first French Renaissance garden, having been established when King Charles VIII returned from Italy. The garden was designed by Francis I's gardener, Andre Le Nôtre, and it features many innovations that would come to define French gardening for several decades to come.
Italian Renaissance gardens are known for their geometric designs and organic shapes inspired by plants. They used geometry to create illusions of depth and proportion and to display art. French gardens, on the other hand, were designed for pleasure and entertainment rather than for formal displays so they tended to be less structured and more open. Geometric designs were used, but they were based more on art than on mathematics.
French gardens also used natural materials such as stone and water instead of artificial elements such as fountains or statues. This was done to reflect the belief that nature was a greater artist than man and to allow for better viewing of the landscape.
Italian Renaissance gardens were built for show and intimidation whereas French gardens were designed for relaxation and enjoyment.
The gardens of the French Renaissance were influenced by the gardens of the Italian Renaissance, which eventually evolved into the bigger and more formal jardin a la française under the reign of Louis XIV by the middle of the 17th century. The Italians had developed a number of new plants for their gardens, including some species now found in almost all French gardens to this day. In addition they had taken plant material from all over Europe and beyond and cultivated it together in one place for the first time. This resulted in a rich mix of colors and shapes that was new to European eyes.
During the early years of the French Renaissance, French kings and other high-status people were invited to enjoy the beauty of foreign lands by traveling there and taking part in special events such as battles or dances. As a result, many new plants were introduced to France and others became popular for the first time. For example, the French learned about tulips from the Germans and brought them back home where they started to grow widely used today in springtime festivals and parades.
After these initial years when royalty played an important role in spreading knowledge about gardening around the world, things began to change. More and more farmers started to become wealthy due to growing crops on larger areas and selling them at market. They built large houses with rooms inside and bought expensive furniture.
Gardening was resurrected in Europe in the 13th century in Languedoc and the Ile-de-France. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, the rediscovery of accounts of classic Roman villas and gardens resulted in the construction of a new type of garden, the Italian Renaissance garden. The first books on gardening were written during this time.
Gardening became popular again in Europe in the 17th century, when aristocrats built lavish pleasure gardens. These gardens were designed to give visitors an idea of what life might be like in the royal courts of France and England. At the end of the 18th century, gardening became even more popular when wealthy individuals began building private greenhouses for flowers and vegetables. This trend grew throughout the 19th century as urban populations increased and people wanted to live closer to where they worked. In fact, one reason why London's Kew Gardens are famous all over the world is because they show what plants will grow well in Britain's temperate climate.
By the 20th century, gardening had become yet another luxury that the middle class could not afford. However, public gardens started appearing around Europe (and the world) with the arrival of the tourist industry in major cities such as Paris, London, and New York. Today, gardening is once again a popular activity, this time among the affluent population of developed countries.
Garden of the Italian Renaissance. The Italian Renaissance garden was a new style of garden that emerged in the late 15th century at villas in Rome and Florence, inspired by classical ideals of order and beauty, and intended for the pleasure of the view of the garden and the landscape beyond, contemplation, and enjoyment of the sights, sounds, and smells. It replaced the medieval herbaceous border as the preferred method of flower planting.
The Italian Renaissance garden was designed to be seen from inside the house, with many features hidden from view, such as grottoes, arbors, fountains, statues, and other decorations. It was also used for growing flowers for the table or medicinal herbs.
The most famous example of an Italian Renaissance garden is the Villa di Belvedere in Cesena, Italy, built between 1555 and 1565. The garden was created by Luca Beltranozzi who was commissioned by Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. It includes geometric parterres, canals, fountains, bridges, and buildings such as a temple, a hermitage, and a palace. This garden has been called "the most beautiful garden in Europe."
Another important artist from Cesena who contributed to the creation of this garden was Giorgio Massari. He worked on the design of the canal system, the temples, the hermitage, and the views from various points around the garden.
This French garden was developed by King Francis in a design centered on three terraces of varying elevations, surrounded by historic walls. Many large-scale French Renaissance gardens have a collection of villa water components. Water buffet In Baroque Paris, this phrase refers to a garden expansion from a public place. The word comes from the Italian word battuto, which means "flayed." In other words, it refers to a area of the garden where the skin, or bark, of an ancient tree has been removed to reveal the wood beneath.
Baroque architecture is characterized by its exuberant use of sculpture and painting in place of plainer classical forms. The term was first used to describe the style of building art and architecture in Portugal and Spain, but it is now applied to similar styles produced all over Europe and in parts of North America.
The best known example of Baroque architecture in England is at Petworth House in West Sussex, built between 1671 and 1714 for Charles II's chief minister William Bentinck (1690-1754). The house exhibits many features associated with the style: grand entrance steps, elaborate plasterwork, tall windows, and symmetrical designs on the exterior. Inside, the state rooms are decorated with paintings by Van Dyck and Rubens and furniture made by French craftsmen.
Classic gardens are, by definition, formal gardens. Clean geometry, symmetry, and clear lines distinguish them. They have their origins in ancient history and reached their zenith in formal French gardens such as Versailles. Modern equivalents can be found in city parks and public gardens around the world.
In its most basic form, a classic garden is an area of land with straight edges and right angles bounded by walls or hedges, within which everything has been carefully arranged according to type. The flower bed is one kind of arrangement; another is the grid of parallel roads known as a terreplein. The third type of arrangement is a collection of similar objects grouped together for comparison or contemplation; these are called "symphonies." A fourth type of arrangement is that of parts forming a whole; these are called "compositions."
The term "garden" also can be used as a general description of any open space, even if it is not based on strict geometric principles. This usage is common in Europe where gardens are often defined as outdoor living spaces that include ornamental plants and trees, although they may also contain sports fields, paths, and other forms of vegetation. In North America, however, gardens are usually defined as areas of cultivated land containing flowers, vegetables, or both.