Unlike Greek temples, Roman temples were modest and varied in construction. The Greek usage of columns on the temple exterior, as well as the use and positioning of the triangular pediment, were adopted by the Romans. The word "basilica" comes from the Greek word meaning "royal." In Rome, these buildings were used for religious purposes and sometimes for government offices.
The Greeks had developed a sophisticated system of weights and measures that was widely used throughout Europe in the early days of Christianity. This became known as the "Greek" system of weights and measures. During the Middle Ages, Europeans used a different system called the "Latin" system. The terms "Greek" and "Roman" are still used today to describe the systems in use at the time they were developed.
In conclusion, Greek culture had a profound effect on later cultures including the Romans. The Romans adopted many aspects of this culture and used them to create their own unique style which is still used today.
The Greeks and Etruscans both absorbed and adapted concepts from the Romans. Greek architecture had a significant impact on the Romans. As you may recall, the Greeks erected marble temples to house their gods. The Parthenon and other temples featured majestic columns that added to their splendor. The Romans also borrowed ideas from the Greeks: they used marble in some of their buildings and even built arches like those seen in Greece. In addition, the Greeks introduced many concepts to Rome that are still used today including archaeology, mathematics, and science.
Greek philosophers such as Socrates and Plato influenced the thinking of Rome's leaders. Their ideas about democracy, freedom, and justice were very appealing to the Romans who wanted to establish their own democracies. Thus, the Greeks helped transform ancient Rome into a great power.
The temple is the most recognizable "Greek" construction (even though the architecture of Greek temples is actually quite diverse). Temples were named "o naos" (ho naos) by the Greeks, which means "dwelling"; the term "temple" originates from the Latin term templum.
Although classical temples were built of stone, with wood as a supporting material, they often used bronze or marble in their decoration. These materials are expensive and difficult to work with, so it can be assumed that they were chosen because of their beauty rather than for their practicality.
Furthermore, although many classical temples had floors that were made of marble or other stone, others were only covered by grass or dirt. The only real requirement was that the site have solid ground enough to support a pillar or post on which to mount the roof beam.
Finally, even though many temples were very large, only a few were ever really completed. Most classes started with an idea for a great temple but then lost interest when they ran out of money or time. Only the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was truly finished.
That's not to say that all other buildings weren't important, just that they weren't true temples. There were several different types of buildings used by classes throughout their history.
One type of building was the "tholos".
Tall columns, elaborate embellishments, symmetry, harmony, and balance are all hallmarks of Greek architecture. The Greeks constructed a wide range of structures. The magnificent temples that the Greeks erected for their gods are the principal examples of Greek architecture that exist today. But they also built large public buildings for the community at large, including theaters, stoas (marketplaces), and even prisons.
Rome became one of the most important civilizations in the history of Europe when it was founded as a city-state in 751 B.C. By 200 A.D., it had eclipsed its predecessor in power and influence. Rome is famous for its many impressive monuments, including capital cities, museums, libraries, and temples. One of the largest empires in history, Rome influenced culture around the world and shaped modern Europe and America.
Greek and Roman architects were highly skilled craftsmen who used local materials such as marble and stone to construct buildings that are still standing today. They also invented new techniques that are still applied today in various contexts. For example, they developed a method of casting concrete that remains effective today in construction projects around the world.
But despite these achievements, both Greek and Roman architecture suffered from two problems that prevented it from reaching its full potential: democracy and imperialism.
In Greece, politics dominated society.
Greek temples affected Roman temples not just indirectly through their effect on Etruscan temples, but also directly through the importation of Greek architects working in Rome in the second century BC and knowledgeable with the orders. The most important of these was Mecenas, who designed the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus.
Other Greeks who came to Italy and worked on buildings there include: Apelles, who designed a hall for Caesar at Antium; Callicrates, who built a temple for Persephone near Aricia; Pythodorus, who restored the Circus Maximus; and Xenocles, who worked on the Palace of Tiberius.
The direct influence of Greek architecture on that of Rome is more evident from literary sources than from actual remains. However, it is known from literary sources that some temples were constructed in Italy out of marble brought from Greece. These include the temple of Vesta in Rome, which had been built before the arrival of the Romans, and the so-called Temple of Saturn, which was probably a shrine devoted to Saturn rather than a temple per se.
However, even if Italian builders didn't copy exact replicas of Greek monuments, they still derived much from them. For example, both Greek and Roman architects used columns to support structures above ground level.
Votive gifts were regularly stored in temples. They are the most important and ubiquitous form of building in Greek architecture. The word comes from the Latin votive, meaning "that which is offered with a prayer," which in turn comes from the Greek vōtēs, "offering." Votive offerings could be anything from a piece of wood to something more valuable--such as an animal or piece of gold. In return for this gift, a temple patron might receive prayers for health, success in business, fertility in agriculture, etc.
Votive statues were common in Greek and Roman art. They often represented religious heroes or gods, but they could also be ordinary people who had been deified after their death. Like other votives, these images were used as offerings to ensure a safe journey for those making the requests, good harvests, and successful battles.
Temples served as places where prayers could be made to powerful deities. As well, they often included meeting rooms where priests could discuss matters concerning the religion, and sometimes even conduct rituals. During times of war, temples provided shelter for soldiers and captives, and sometimes even the sick and injured. After a battle or military victory, Romans would often decorate their temples with trophies taken from their enemies.
Two of Rome's most famous buildings, erected during the Pax Romana, were the Pantheon and the Colosseum. The Pantheon is Rome's most famous domed structure and is a magnificent temple to all of Rome's gods. The Colosseum was built of concrete and faced with stone. It features an artificial hillock in the center of which stands an imposing tower. The arena itself was covered by a wooden flooring when used for events other than animal fights - e.g., elections. In it people gathered from all over Italy to watch lions and other wild animals fight to the death.