The Greeks began manufacturing columns when constructing temples. They started with the Doric Columns, then the Ionic Columns, and lastly the Corinthian Columns. Today, these architectural ideas are commonly employed in the construction of multi-story buildings and other structures. The Greeks also invented the arch as a means of overcoming natural barriers to building construction such as rivers or mountains. The arch is still used extensively in the construction of bridges and tunnels.
Greek architecture had a profound impact on later architects and artists. The Romans admired the simplicity and purity of the Doric column and used it often in their own buildings. The Greeks also used the Ionic column in some Roman buildings. However, it was the introduction of the Corinthian column into Rome that made it one of the most popular column types during the Empire era.
After the fall of Rome, European architecture entered a period of obscurity until the Renaissance brought back interest in classical forms. During this time, many monasteries and churches were built in Europe featuring large naves and aisles with high ceilings and small windows for greater darkness. This style of architecture was inspired by Greek and Roman basilicas and was common from about A.D. 400 to 1100.
As European cities began to grow after the Middle Ages, they needed larger houses with more room for furniture and storage. Therefore, two-story homes with attics became popular.
The Greeks were fantastic architects. To support their structures, they devised three sorts of columns. There was the fashionable Doric, the scrolling Ionic, and the opulent Corinthian. Almost every public structure in ancient Greece included one of these three styles. The Romans adopted both the Doric and the Ionic column as their own. But they made improvements to them. For example, they carved some decorative details on their bases and capitals.
Columns were used in large buildings like temples or theaters, but they could also be used in smaller houses. They provided extra support for the roof or floor above. Or sometimes they were even used as shelves!
In Greek and Roman times, many artists and designers took advantage of the possibilities columns offered for decoration. They would often use two rows of columns instead of one. This arrangement called for more than one style of column - either Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian. By varying the colors and shapes of their capitals, they could offer a range of options for decorating a building's exterior. A red Doric column on a white temple would look splendid, but a black Ionic column would also make an attractive feature.
Inside large buildings, columns were used to divide up the space into rooms. They could be painted or covered with wood or marble panels. In this way, walls became furniture - something that wasn't possible without pillars to hold it up.
Columns of Greece The Greeks constructed the majority of their temples and administrative structures in three styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The sorts of columns they employed reflected these styles (also known as "orders"). The majority of the columns featured fluting, which were grooves along the sides. There were also flat-faced columns and monolithic pillars.
Doric columns have a plain square cross-section with no decorative features. They are made of wood or marble and usually have a diameter of between 1-2 meters. They are slender and tall (usually more than 3 meters high), with curved feet that fit into a rectangular base. In classical architecture, they were used primarily for entranceways and peripteral (or peripheral) columns. However, early Doric columns had very large proportions compared to those used in later Doric architecture (for example, the Erechtheion on Aegis Lyngby has Doric columns about 5 meters high).
Ionic columns have a slightly fluted square cross-section with faces decorated by shallow indentations called "register marks". They are made of wood or stone and vary in size from 1-2 meters up to 4 meters or more. Smaller versions are called "antae" and were often used as friezes for buildings with a flat roof. Larger versions were sometimes used as pedestals for statues.
The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns, which prop up roofs and adorn façade of theaters, courthouses, and government buildings across the world, are among the most ubiquitous characteristics devised by the Greeks that are still in use today.
Other elements of ancient Greek culture include the theater, gymnasium, temple, stoa, palaestra, and hippodrome. Many of these features can be found anywhere from Greece to India to Africa. In fact, evidence has been found of many of these structures in Egypt!
The Greek city-state was also very influential in the development of Western civilization. The ideas of democracy, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and even writing were all invented by the Greeks.
In addition, they are believed to have come up with certain food trends that have become popular throughout Europe. For example, they are responsible for introducing olive oil into European cuisine, because it was thought to have medicinal properties. They also developed a love for salt because it helps preserve meat and fish before going into storage or during travel to distant markets.
Finally, the Greeks are credited with creating modern science through people such as Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Archimedes, and Galen. Mathematics, physics, biology, anatomy, and medicine all came about as a result of Greek experimentation and discovery.