The mobility that characterizes baroque architecture is its defining feature. The expression of French Baroque architecture was more restrained than that of Italian Baroque architecture. The most noticeable and remembered differences between the two types were their culture, economy, religion, governance, and economics. In France, the monarchy was central to any understanding of government or authority. Thus, the architecture reflected this belief by using a style derived from the court at Versailles rather than Rome or Florence. France also had a strong commercial industry so new materials were available for use in buildings. France's economic situation was also much better than that of Italy so there was more money to spend on entertainment and pleasure.
Italy, on the other hand, was dominated by the papacy which was based in Rome. Therefore, Italian Baroque architecture is very religious in nature with large-scale projects such as churches and monasteries being built at this time. It is known as "Barocco Roman" because it was mostly constructed during the Baroque period in Rome (1556-1700). However, since Italy as a whole was not as wealthy as France, the style used by architects in Italy was more refined than that in France.
There are many similarities between the art of France and Italy during this time frame. Both countries had recently been through political upheavals caused by religious wars. Also, both nations were rebuilding after these wars so they needed housing.
The Baroque period in architecture, like the Renaissance, was distinguished by design rather than structural innovation. Baroque structures were elaborately ornamented in contrast to the bareness of Renaissance architecture. The design components grew more expressive and dynamic, with an emphasis on energy rather than balance. Also like the Renaissance, many architects and artists from all over Europe came together to create buildings with unique styles that reflected their cultures and environments.
The Baroque style originated in Italy around 1600 and continued into the early 17th century. It was characterized by large numbers of intersecting lines, intricate moldings, and powerful imagery. Artists such as Borromini and Lanfredo used these elements in their work. They often placed three or four figures in a single piece of sculpture, creating a dramatic effect. Sculptures were also used as a decorative feature for interior spaces.
In France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, the term Baroque is applied to art forms that are similar to those of the Italian Baroque but which first appear in Dutch paintings about 1650. These include works by Peter Paul Rubens, Jacob Jordaens, and Rembrandt van Rijn.
The German Baroque began in Bavaria about 1660 and lasted until about 1740. It was created by architects and sculptors who were members of the German Baroque school.
Its qualities are Exaggerated motion and clear detail are utilized to create drama, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, art, building, literature, dance, and music in the Baroque style.
The Baroque style was developed in Europe between about 1600 and 1750. It was an aesthetic that combined Italian Renaissance humanism with French classicism, but with more emphasis on emotion and less on reason than either of its predecessors. The style is characterized by dramatic movement, elaborate decoration, and a desire for perfection in every aspect of life.
Baroque artists such as Caravaggio and Rubens painted subjects drawn from biblical texts for the Catholic Church. But they also painted secular subjects for private collectors who wanted to display their wealth. These paintings often included scenes of violence; eroticism; and exaggerated or theatrical movements and gestures. The effects of light and color were used to create a sense of mystery and excitement. Artists employed various techniques to achieve these results including chiaroscuro (where dark objects stand out against a light background), sfumato (where shapes are blurred into each other), and riccia (a brushstroke pattern used to indicate water).
Baroque architecture in Italy is associated especially with the names of two great architects: Borromini and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.