Penn's drawings were the first among his urban planning colleagues to feature 100-foot-wide avenues, which were wider than any street in London at the time. Roads along the river were built to be 60 feet wide, while the rest streets were meant to be 50 feet wide. Nonetheless, Penn's open streets were groundbreaking. The mayor of London at the time ordered that only streets wider than 16 feet could be paved with cobblestones, which limited the ability of contractors to make money off roadwork.
In addition to wide avenues, Penn also proposed that his city be divided into square blocks with large open spaces in the middle. His plan called for a central park the size of Delaware where citizens could exercise and enjoy the sunshine. Though the city council rejected this idea initially, they may have been swayed by the fact that many people living in London at the time were unhappy with how their city was developing.
Ultimately, what made Philadelphia unique was not just its wide streets and squares, but also its town center, Chestnut Street, which was at the time one of the most popular shopping destinations in America. Chestnut Street was so successful that other cities across the country started copying it. Before it was destroyed by fire in 1835, the center of Baltimore, Maryland was based on Chestnut Street too. Today, nothing remains of the old downtown except for some foundations and memories.
The civil engineer who designed Philadelphia's infrastructure was John Haviland.
Penn laid out a two-mile-wide rectangle of land flanked on all sides by fresh, running water with the assistance of mentee Thomas Holme. Say welcome to the heart of the city. The nearly totally regular street grid of Philadelphia did not arise by chance.
The city was founded as a place of religious freedom, and so its layout is based on a series of open squares connected by clean, wide streets. The central square is called Market Street Square. It is here that the town hall, state house, and art museum are located. The surrounding area is home to many more museums and galleries.
Philadelphia's historic district covers about 15 percent of the city. Here you will find some of the nation's most impressive buildings, including the Benjamin Franklin Federal Building, the Art Museum, and Independence Hall.
During the French and Indian War, British general William Bradford sought out Thomas Holme for advice on building a city on the frontier. As a reward, Penn granted Holme a tract of land along the Delaware River for his services. When Holme died soon after reaching his goal, his son Henry took over the project. By 1730, much of the center of Philadelphia was built up and becoming increasingly important to the colony's economy.
Penn envisioned a metropolis on the Delaware River that would function as both a port and a seat of administration. Penn set out roadways on a grid layout to keep residences and businesses spaced out, with places for gardens and orchards, with the hope that Philadelphia would develop more like an English country town than than a metropolis. He paid workers in advance to build houses along his roadways and provided free land and credit to others who wanted to settle there.
In addition to serving as a port, Penn also wanted Philadelphia to be an educational center where students could learn not only trades but also science and literature. He hired British teachers to help establish these types of programs here. Unfortunately, neither the port nor the schools were successful so Penn turned the management of Philadelphia over to a board of trustees made up of prominent citizens. The city has never had a mayor since its government was changed to officeholders instead.
Philadelphia has always been a major city, but it wasn't until after the American Revolution that it became one of the largest cities in the new nation. A growing population needed homes, jobs, and education, and Philadelphia offered these things. Transportation was also a problem though, because there were no bridges across the Delaware River at this time so all traffic entered and left Philadelphia by boat. This made it difficult for people to get into town and stop tourists from going elsewhere.
Penn envisioned a "Green Country Town" with broad avenues that were free of the overpopulation, fire, and illness that afflicted European towns. His involvement in the creation of five public squares, one in each quadrant of the city and one in the center, was important to this concept. These spaces were to be used for civic events such as elections and town meetings.
Another reason for Penn's involvement was to provide his country estate near Philadelphia with an atmosphere similar to that of his family home in England. He wanted Oaks Park to be surrounded by trees and open fields rather than houses and streets, so architects were given freedom within these constraints to create something unique. They came up with a grid system of wide boulevards lined with trees and parks. This plan was adopted by the city council without debate or modification.
The first stage in building Philadelphia was the division of the land into lots. Each lot was to be a square block with 48 acres and each house was to be built on a single lot. The street width was to be 20 feet, which is more than enough room for a wagon wheel turning around a post. This was designed to allow room for grassy medians between the streets and sidewalks. It also allows for two rows of trees down the middle of each avenue, which would have been quite rare at the time. The city was divided into eight sections called "wards", and a surveyor was hired to mark out the streets.
The names complemented William Penn's efforts to promote the city as a "greene rural town." After William Penn and surveyor Thomas Holme sketched up their layout for Philadelphia in 1683, most of the streets running east-west were named after trees. North-south streets were often named after figures from history or literature.
These are just some of the many questions that can be answered by visiting the Library of Congress website. The site offers access to millions of pages of material from across the world and is worth a look if you're interested in learning more about different cultures or finding out how current events affect you personally.
Some other helpful websites for students interested in learning more about foreign countries or aspects of American culture include zenhabits.com, which provides guidelines for creating healthy habits; TodayIWill...
...which gives useful tips for a successful start to your day; and Notcot.com, which is full of ideas for things to do this weekend with the family.
Students who are looking to improve their research skills or want to learn how to write effectively may find Doximity useful. This website allows users to search through detailed information about doctors so they can find the right one for themselves or a friend. Users can also create private networks to share information about particular physicians who have specializations they need help with.