However, builders must ensure that super-strong winds do not topple a tower. As a result, the concrete used to construct these enormous structures is reinforced with steel rods and beams. This steel is used to construct the skyscraper's "skeleton." It provides structural support for the entire skyscraper, helping it to stand tall and robust.
These skeletons are then covered in plaster or cement, which covers the reinforcing bars and makes the building look beautiful too! There have been cases where this plaster has cracked, revealed the reinforcing bars underneath, but this is rare.
Towers have two main types of design: free-standing and stacked. A free-standing tower is built on its own foundation and cannot be added onto or removed from another structure. An example of this type of design is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. A stacked tower is attached to another structure using footings and anchors, like a house would be if it were being built as an addition. The top floor of the stacked tower would be considered part of the roof of the lower tower, rather than part of the floor. For example, if there were a 10-story stacked tower next to a 5-story free-standing one, the combined height of the buildings would be 15 stories.
There are also different types of reinforcement used in construction to make buildings stronger. Horizontal reinforcement is any material used to strengthen a structure by preventing the walls inside the building from bending.
According to experts, all towering structures will wobble somewhat in the wind. The designers also take into account the effects of gravity when planning the layout of buildings. For example, architects place elevators at strategic locations so people can get from floor to floor easily.
Skyscrapers are built with lots of floors connected by staircases. If any one floor becomes damaged or collapses, then the other floors provide support for the weight above them. This is why it is important that they are built using quality materials and according to strict guidelines.
In conclusion, skyscrapers do not fall because they are built using strong materials and design practices that take into account the effect of gravity.
It keeps the towering building from swinging too much, allowing it to survive strong winds.
The best way to keep a building from collapsing due to high winds is to make its structure rigid enough so that there are no weak points where the force of the wind could cause parts of it to break away. The more rigid the structure, the less likely it is to collapse.
The strongest winds occur near the ground and diminish with height. Therefore, buildings greater than 20 stories high have structurally sound foundations and are unlikely to collapse in strong winds.
The most dangerous part of any skyscraper is its roof. Because they are flat, metal roofs provide no protection from heavy rain or snow. If a large amount of water gets on a roof, it can lead to erosion and eventually collapse. On average, people assume that lightning strikes are the cause of every building collapse. In fact, according to the National Institute of Building Sciences, 90% of all buildings that collapse are not struck by lightning. The 10% that are struck usually contain well-built structures that are able to withstand such attacks.
The remaining 10% of building collapses result from factors such as improper maintenance, damage caused by an earthquake, or structural error.
Skyscrapers must be strengthened anywhere to resist strong winds, but there are special issues in earthquake zones. The joints between a building's supporting elements can be strengthened to withstand being twisted or deformed by earthquake pressures. But deep inside the structure of many high-rise buildings these joint systems are very small and difficult or impossible to access without damaging them.
The biggest threat to tall buildings is actually not wind or water but falling objects. In an effort to save money, some developers choose not to install anti-fall protection systems in their buildings. This can be dangerous if someone decides to climb up the outside of the building to get on the top floor apartment or office suite.
In fact, almost 100 people die each year from falls that cause injuries at buildings over 7 stories high -- most often when they're working on remodeling projects or trying to escape an exploding gas pipe. The Office of the State Architecten has recommended that buildings over 7 stories contain automatic door openers to help those who fall escape to safety. However, this is not always the case - many fallen victims are women who are unable to use the openers because of physical limitations.
Finally, high-rise buildings are vulnerable to explosive gases that may leak from appliances such as dishwashers, washing machines, dryers, and refrigerators.