A Hollander beater is a machine invented by the Dutch in 1680 to create paper pulp from plant fibers containing cellulose. The Hollander chopped the raw material using metal blades and a chopping motion, producing in shorter cellulose fibers and weaker paper. Today, modern paper mills use machines that are similar but use chemicals instead of blades to break down the wood.
The Hollander beater was a huge improvement over previous methods for making paper. Before it was developed, paper had to be made by hand, one sheet at a time. The labor involved in making paper led to its high cost. But the Hollander beater reduced the cost of paper products because many papers could now be made from just one large piece of wood. This also helped conserve forest resources since fewer sheets needed to be made from each tree.
People have been making paper for thousands of years using techniques that were not too different from what mill owners used today. Papermakers still use wood as a source of fiber today, only now they use mechanical processes instead of hand tools. And like their ancient counterparts, modern paper manufacturers collect the fibers from various sources (wood pellets, cotton, hemp, etc.) and combine them into a slurry called "stock" that is used by papermakers to make paper.
When stock is poured into a papermachine it forms long strips of paper called "sheets".
The Soft Felt beater is made from European wool felt and is untreated and natural for a good, punchy hit with minimal attack. For decades, this sort of felt beater has been the industry standard. The Soft Felt beater is an excellent all-purpose beater for any type of music.
Felt beaters are commonly used by musicians to provide a smooth, even surface for their instruments to rest on while they are not in use. This helps prevent the formation of scar tissue on the wood of the instrument body caused by the metal strings contacting the wood directly. This will help ensure that your instrument remains in good playing condition for longer.
Felt beaters are also useful for removing dust, dirt, and other small particles that may accumulate on top of your instrument's soundboard or bridge. These tasks can be done without harming the wood of your instrument if you use something soft and rounded such as a felt beater.
Finally, felt beaters can be used as a protective covering when an instrument is being transported or stored. This can be helpful if you need to make several trips between your home and the store with your instrument in its case. Felt is very durable and will protect your instrument during transport.
Felt beaters are easy to find online and at music stores worldwide. They usually come in two sizes: one for small instruments and one for large ones.
The Swing Dutchman is a felling technique that involves pulling a tree against its lean in order for it to fall in a more desired direction. The notch's purpose is to allow the tree to fall without prematurely breaking the hinge. Too much weight on the tree can cause it to break instead.
The name "Swing Dutchman" comes from the fact that the operator swings the tree like a hammer to knock the wood loose from the trunk so it can be sawed up.
This method was popular with timber cruisers looking to harvest large amounts of wood quickly. Today, it is used mainly by farmers who need to control the direction in which their trees grow.
The most common types of trees used for Swing Dutchmen are Pines and Firs. However, any deciduous tree that grows straight and allows for easy sawing at a consistent thickness can be used. If you want to use a tree for lumber that you plan to burn or otherwise not keep, don't swing a Dutchman cut tree.
Trees this size usually aren't moved by hand, so if you want to use this technique you'll need a tractor or other machine designed specifically for manipulating large objects.