In general, New York City does not limit building heights, but instead governs bulk and density through what is known as the floor area ratio (FAR). This means that a residential developer in an R-9 district can build nine times the square footage of the lot area. For example, if a developer has a 10,000-square-foot lot, they can build 90,000 square feet, which is roughly equivalent to three 40-story buildings.
There are also certain areas of town where building heights are limited. In most of Manhattan, for example, buildings are required by law to be at least 20 stories tall, but some special permit programs have been established that will allow developers to build higher. In Brooklyn, building heights are restricted to be no more than four stories above ground level on lots smaller than 15,000 square feet, with some exceptions for concrete or steel frames. There are also areas of Queens where building heights are limited to be no more than two stories above ground level.
In addition to governing bulk and density, cities also regulate construction materials, including how much space something takes up on a building site. For example, a development site cannot be bigger than 30 percent dirt until it is fully graded and paved. If a house was built out of dirt, it would take up too much room on the lot and be considered a bulk object.
Most city blocks in New York City measure 660 feet by 330 feet, or 5 acres. However, urban planning has evolved over time, as have beliefs regarding the appropriate size of city blocks. In the early 20th century, for example, city planners believed that small blocks were efficient and convenient. They also believed that increasing block size would decrease traffic congestion.
Today, many cities around the world are switching to larger blocks because studies show that it benefits pedestrians who live on these streets by making them feel safer and less isolated. The National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) reports that large-scale experimentation with larger blocks resulted in significant improvements in safety for children walking to school and other changes in behavior by drivers that reduced traffic accidents by 35%!
Large blocks are also more environmentally friendly than smaller ones. This is because there is less need for parking when houses are closer together. Urban gardens and reductions in vehicle trips are other advantages of living on a street with large blocks.
Finally, larger blocks make city living easier for those who are physically impaired or elderly. These people tend to require a lot of space when moving from place to place, but city blocks provide this freedom while still giving them access to their neighbors.
Overall, city blocks can be any size between 100 and 5000 square meters (1 acre).
The paucity of megatall buildings in New York has nothing to do with engineering. Because of strong bedrock and an extraordinary amount of experience in the region, it is perfectly viable to construct over 600 meters high in the metropolis. You could build a megatall if you wanted to—but that's the problem. Nobody wants to.
The reason why there are no megatall buildings in New York is simple: money. Cost-effective construction at such a scale requires innovative design and advanced technology, neither of which result in profits for their owners.
In addition, people are afraid of heights. The thought of living in a building that tall makes many feel uncomfortable or ill-equipped to handle life on top of a mountain. There must be some other reason why there are no megatalls in Dubai or Abu Dhabi. Let's take a look at these cities next.
In New York City, the minimum bedroom measurements are 8 feet in any dimension, with an 8-foot ceiling height. A legal bedroom in New York City must be at least 80 square feet in size.
The average size of a New York City bedroom is 1,200 square feet. Smaller bedrooms can be difficult to maintain a comfortable temperature in, while larger ones can be hard to navigate when looking for something to read. In fact, the largest average bedroom size in New York City is on Upper East Side, which measures 1,400 square feet. Other large averages are also on the Upper East Side (1,300 square feet) and on Central Park West (1,100 square feet). Smallest averages are found in Inwood Village, which has an average size of 750 square feet, and Hamilton Beach, which has an average size of 400 square feet.
Here are some more examples: The median size of a New York City bedroom is 925 square feet; the mean (or average) is 1,150 square feet; and the maximum is 1,500 square feet. Women's clothing sizes 6 and 4 tend to have smaller windows than men's sizes 10 and 2. On average, women's clothes are sized 3 inches smaller than men's sizes.
New York City apartments were originally built with nine-room apartments common for one family.
Whole sections of the city flout existing zoning regulations. According to statistics provided by Stephen Smith and Sandip Trivedi, about two out of every five buildings in Manhattan are taller, bulkier, bigger, or more congested than existing zoning permits. They manage Quantierra, a real estate startup that searches for investment possibilities using data. The company has found profitable investments in under-utilized buildings across the country.
In fact, according to research published by the University of Chicago Urban Institute, anywhere from 20% to 50% of buildings in most cities across the United States were built without proper authorization. In some cases, developers have exploited loopholes in the system to build higher or wider than what is permitted by law. In other cases, owners have simply ignored building restrictions to add additional floors or rooms to their properties.
In Brooklyn, New York, for example---where large-scale development began before World War II---about one out of every three buildings was constructed without approval from any government agency. In Boston, where development started later, the rate was one in ten buildings.
What's more, research shows that building too small is also very common. A study conducted by Harvard University economists suggests that nearly half of all new houses in America's largest cities were built without living space beyond a bedroom. It gets worse: Two out of three of these tiny homes were undersize relative to their occupants.
The NYC Building Code specifies a maximum fence height of 10 feet, while the NYC Zoning Resolution specifies further height restrictions: 6 feet, BC SS3112.1. 4 feet, ZR SS23-44. These regulations apply to new construction as well as alterations to existing fences.
In general, an adequate fence for privacy and protection needs should be at least four-feet high. Any higher than that and it becomes a structure under city code meaning that you would need a permit from the Department of Buildings to build it. However, most fences are not built with this in mind so if you want one that is then it's better to go ahead and get a permit. You should also consider the zoning in your area when choosing what kind of fence to buy. If you live in an area where six-foot fencing is allowed but eight-foot fencing is not, then you should probably go with the lower option since too many extra feet can cause problems if you need to make repairs or add on to your house in the future.
Fences can be made out of any material, as long as it's not considered hazardous. Wood is the most common choice because it's affordable and easy to work with. But if you have money available you could also buy a metal fence or even a concrete block wall instead.