Fibonacci's Numbers in Renaissance Architecture The use of the Golden Ratio, or Fibonacci numbers, in architectural design was common in Renaissance architecture. The arabesque is enclosed by a circle, which is enclosed by a square, which is enclosed by a rectangle whose ratio equals the Golden Ratio. This illustration comes from Leonardo da Vinci's Codex Urnay.
In this example, the rectangle is equal to 1.4 times the circle. Therefore, the ratio of the circles to the rectangles is about 0.6. This means that if you were to divide the circumference of the larger circle by the width of the smaller one, you would get about 0.6 as your answer. In other words, half of the larger circle is equal to half of the smaller one.
The use of these ratios in art and architecture came to be known as "Fibonacci numbers." They are named after Luca Pacioli, who published details of them in 1545.
For example, there are only three steps required to build a dome: base, middle, top. If we let the base length be 1 unit and the height be 2 units, then the middle point will be 3 units up and away from the base. The top point will be 5 units up and away from the base. This creates a ratio of 1:3:5 for the whole dome.
The Renaissance style avoided the intricate proportional systems and uneven profiles of Gothic structures on purpose. Instead, like in traditional Roman architecture, Renaissance builders emphasized symmetry, proportion, geometry, and part uniformity. They also used materials that were easy to work with, such as brick or stone instead of wood.
Renaissance buildings have two main features that distinguish them from other medieval styles: clear lines and visible joints. The simplicity of the style allowed for a wide range of shapes and sizes for buildings, from small churches all the way up to huge castles.
Also unlike most medieval buildings, which were made of stone or brick, most Renaissance buildings were constructed from wood. This was because stone was expensive and hard to get building materials that are useful today. Brick, on the other hand, was cheap and easy to work with, so it became popular instead.
In addition to being made of wood, many Renaissance buildings had wooden roofs too. These were usually built as one piece with the rest of the house but could be separate if needed. They often included a number of different types of wood, which gave the roof its color and texture. For example, the tops of some roofs were gray from the bark of trees while others were black from the soot from burning wood.
The essential components of Renaissance architecture, such as domes and colonnades, were elevated, bigger, more ornamented, and more dramatic by Baroque architects. The resulting buildings are called baroque.
Baroque buildings are characterized by their use of complex, creative forms derived from nature. The key term here is "creative". Architectural styles often include both realistic and imaginary objects, but in the Baroque style these elements become unified under one concept created by the artist/architect. In addition to being creative, the artists' aim was also to astonish their audience with their works. They used unusual materials such as glass, metal, and plastic in order to achieve this goal.
Some examples of baroque buildings include the Santa Maria della Sal in Padua, Italy; the Church of Our Lady of Ransom in Kingston, Jamaica; and Saint Paul's Cathedral in London, England.
The word "baroque" comes from a Portuguese word meaning "debris of rocks". This refers to the decorative effect produced by using natural materials such as shells, stones, and wood in building projects.
During the Baroque period, many great artists developed techniques that are used today.
The Archaic period was a time of significant architectural creativity. The temples, its most important structures, grow more elaborate and subjected to strict symmetry. The wooden elements of the top building were gradually replaced by stone, and new construction techniques were created. The end of the Archaic period is marked by a decline in architecture that continues into the Woodland period.
The new type of building that appeared at this time is called a "wedge-shaped" structure. They are usually built with stone masonry and include several rooms. Some have been found with well-preserved wood beams inside the walls. Wedge-shaped buildings were probably used for ceremonial purposes since they are often located near other large structures such as pyramids or tombs.
Archaic period ends around 1500 B.C. The duration of this era is difficult to estimate because we don't have many examples of this type of building. However, it's believed that it lasted from 1500 B.C. until 1000 B.C.
The reason why we can say with certainty that this is indeed the end of the Archaic period is because after this date there are no more examples of wedge-shaped buildings being constructed.
The temples of Apollo at Corinth, erected in the second quarter of the sixth century B.C., and the temple of Aphaia at Aegina, built approximately 500–480 B.C., are among the best-preserved specimens of Archaic Doric architecture. At least three distinct groups of pedimental sculpture, each exemplifying a distinctive style...
The Parthenon, a Doric temple built in 447 B.C., was the most important monument of Ancient Greece. The Athenians used their own funds to build this temple as a gift to the goddess Athena. The original design was probably drawn up by Ictinus and Callicrates, but the project was taken over by Phidias, who probably completed it about 450 B.C....
Built between 447 and 430 B.C., the Laconian Temple of Apollo is one of the earliest temples in Europe. It was originally crowned with an open wooden roof, after which it was rebuilt using stones obtained from the surrounding area. The entrance to the cella was flanked by two columns supporting a triangular tympanum where the metopes (carvings on stone slabs) were attached. The sculptor came from Metapontum in Italy and was probably a follower of Chares.
The first Greek settlers arrived in what is now Australia in 1493. They were prisoners sent by the Spanish Crown to establish colonies on isolated islands where they could grow food for themselves and sell any surplus production.