A standard skyscraper has a lifespan of 500 years, whereas "special construction" has a lifespan of 1,000 years. The Burj Khalifa in Dubai is the tallest building in the world with 2 miles (3.2 km) of steel girders - it should last at least 500 years before they have to be replaced.
The building of your future kingdom will be made up of materials that will last forever or for very long periods of time. Gold is the hardest material in the world and can only be beaten by diamond tools. Silver is next on the list and can only be matched by gold. Other precious metals including platinum, copper, and iron are all less hard than silver or gold. They can be cut with ordinary metal knives or tools. Copper has the advantage of being recyclable over and over again while still looking good after hundreds of years.
Alloys contain several different kinds of metal mixed together. Bronze, for example, is 75 percent tin and 25 percent copper. Because bronze is so malleable these days, it is used for many things from plumbing to wiring to house siding. Steel is the most common alloy used in construction because it is strong and durable. It is also the most recycled material on the planet.
Skyscrapers are typically constructed to endure 50-100-150 years. The World Trade Center in New York City was built in 1973 and is expected to be demolished once its structural integrity has been compromised due to damage caused by wind, water, fire, or other factors.
The Willis Tower in Chicago was built in 1974 and is expected to last for another 150 years before it too collapses.
The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur were completed in 1995 and are expected to last forever because they're made of steel that's been found to be resistant to corrosion.
The Landmark Building in Los Angeles was finished in 1997 and is expected to last over 100 years if not burned down first. The building is made of glass which creates an airy feel inside even though it's only about 70 feet high.
The Hub Center in Atlanta was built in 1999 and is expected to last over 100 years since it's made of concrete that's designed to resist deterioration from environmental factors.
The Skyline Times Square in New York City was built in 2007 and is expected to last over 100 years since it's made of steel that's designed to resist corrosion.
Buildings of 10 to 20 stories were nevertheless referred to as "skyscrapers" for many years. As building technology advanced, the minimum height for a skyscraper increased to 150 meters (492 feet). Today, the world's tallest building is the Shanghai Tower at 338 m (1,079 ft). It has 92 floors.
The first true skyscraper was built in Chicago in 1885. The Home Insurance Building was designed by Daniel Burnham and John M. Root and measured 175 feet by 250 feet. It had 14 floors connected by an open floor system where each floor could be used for office or retail space. The building withstood a great fire that destroyed much of downtown Chicago in 1895 and continued to be profitable after its initial construction cost of $500,000 was recovered.
Over the next few decades, the height of skyscrapers rose steadily, but technology prevented architects from going any higher; the weight of ice on top of buildings would cause them to collapse if they were constructed today. In 1908, the Tribune Tower was completed in Chicago and it was one of the first buildings to use reinforced concrete as its main structural material. The tower was 1,004 feet tall - then the highest building in the world.
In New York City, the first steel-frame skyscraper was built in 1890 at 23rd Street and 7th Avenue.
A building's lifespan indicates whether it still performs the many duties for which it was built. Historically, a building's lifespan has been expected to be between 35 and 60 years, based on estimating the depreciation of construction capital. However new buildings are being designed to last longer than this. For example, the Walt Disney Company's Disneyland Park in Anaheim, California, opened in 1955, and its Main Street, U.S.A., now stands as one of the most popular attractions in the park. It is estimated that this single theme park ride will add up to its loss when computed using an accelerated depreciation method.
The life expectancy of a building can be divided into two categories: structural life and functional life. Structural life refers to the amount of time that can be expected from a building under normal conditions without major repairs. This depends on several factors such as type of material used in construction, quality of workmanship, location of the building, how much damage it has sustained over time, etc.
Functional life means how long a building will continue to perform its main function after initial completion. For example, if a building is used as a school then its functional life will depend on how long students remain in school; if it is used as an office building then its functional life will depend on how long people need to use its facilities.
150-meter Buildings of 10 to 20 stories were nevertheless referred to as "skyscrapers" for many years. Skyscrapers over 200 meters (656 feet) high are now being built.
The Burj Khalifa in Dubai is the tallest building in the world. It is also the highest building outside of North America and Europe. The tower has 124 floors above ground level and 1 floor below ground. It is 828 meters (2743 feet) tall.
The Shanghai Tower will be the second-highest building in the world when it is completed. At 468 meters (1567 feet), it will be 75 meters (246 feet) taller than the current record holder, the Willis Tower. The Shanghai Tower will have 102 floors above ground and 3 floors below ground.
The third-highest building in the world is the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These twin towers are 443 meters (1450 feet) tall and contain 493 rooms. They were the first high-rise buildings to receive the Gold Award from the Green Building Council of Malaysia.
The fourth-highest building in the world is the Pinnacle Center in Caracas, Venezuela. This is a luxury hotel with 521 rooms that was opened in 2008.