The typical lifespan of any concrete construction should be 75–100 years. However, it is estimated that the average life of an apartment is 50-60 years, whereas the average life of a home is 40 years. This is because apartments are usually built with a limited amount of material resources, while houses tend to use more expensive materials that will last longer.
Concrete structures have the ability to resist damage from moisture, pollution, and natural forces for many years if they are maintained properly. If left unattended, concrete can become weathered and aged looking but this does not necessarily mean that it is becoming less safe. Concrete continues to hold up well under most conditions except for when it is exposed to heat or chemicals. Then it begins to deteriorate just like anything else that is made of concrete: bricks, sculptures, and even entire buildings have been restored or replaced after being exposed to heat or chemicals for a long time.
The best way to ensure that your concrete structure lasts as long as possible is by maintaining it regularly. This includes washing away any dirt or debris that may find its way into small cracks in the pavement with a mild detergent and warm water, and sealing these holes with a concrete sealant to prevent additional soil from entering the cavity inside the hole.
In addition, regular inspections of concrete structures for signs of deterioration are important in ensuring their longevity.
A building's lifespan indicates whether it still performs the many duties for which it was built. Historically, a building's lifespan has been expected to be between 35 and 60 years, based on estimating the depreciation of construction capital. However new buildings are being designed to last longer than this. For example, the Life Sciences Building at UC Berkeley was designed to be resistant to natural disaster and climate change by using sustainable strategies such as green building techniques and organic materials. This means that it could potentially live for hundreds of years or more.
The lifespan of an old building depends on how well it was built in the first place. If it's made of wood, other durable materials, or concrete, then it can last for many generations if care is taken not to damage it with heavy equipment or the elements. A stone building may need some maintenance if it's exposed to the weather, but not much compared with a wooden building. The main factors that affect the lifespan of a building are its architecture and engineering. For example, if a building has structural problems such as broken windows or doors, then it's likely to collapse after several decades unless they're fixed. On the other hand, if it has been seismically retrofitted, then it should be able to withstand major earthquakes without collapsing.
In general terms, a building will last for as long as its components (such as steel) are useable and available as technology advances.
Concrete should endure 30 to 100 years or more for major projects such as buildings and residences, depending on the construction style and manner of installation. When other materials, such as wood, begin to decay, the concrete shell of a building or residence may often be reused. This reuse - known as "retrofitting" - is becoming increasingly common as cost-effective methods are developed for preserving old structures.
Concrete continues to improve its durability over time through the use of advanced techniques and materials. The three main factors that affect concrete's durability are the type of cement used, the amount of moisture present during curing, and the age of the concrete itself. Cement plays an important role in determining how long concrete can be expected to stand up under normal conditions. Concrete made with high-quality cement will last longer than that made with low-quality cement. Moisture also affects the longevity of concrete. During mixing, water helps control the flowability of cement and allows it to be applied to a surface in a uniform layer. If left alone, cement will dry out and become hard before it has a chance to cure completely. The older the concrete, the more likely it is to contain excess moisture. Both high humidity and large temperature fluctuations can cause concrete to fail prematurely.
There are two types of cement: ordinary portland cement and accelerated cement.