Each side of the structure was encircled by low stairs, and a portico of Doric columns standing on a platform formed a boundary around it. The columns are divided into 46 outer columns and 19 interior columns. The columns are tapered slightly to give the temple a symmetrical look. Overall, the temple is about 180 feet long and 90 feet wide.
The original height of the Parthenon was 40 feet, but over the years it has been restored several times. The last major restoration was in 1816 when the building was raised by 10 feet. Today, the temple stands at about 30 feet high.
In 438 BC, after many years of construction, the Athenians finally completed their most important monument: the Parthenon. It was dedicated to the goddess Athena, who was believed to have led them against their enemies back in 471 BC. The Athenians had a policy of honoring heroes who saved cities from danger. They also wanted to show that Athens was now one of the most powerful countries in Europe.
At first, the design of the Parthenon wasn't very popular with everyone. Some people thought it looked like a big head with no body attached. But later on, this design became famous all over Greece and even today parts of it can be found in other temples built by the Greeks.
During World War II, the Germans destroyed much of the northern part of Athens.
The architects used remarkable inventiveness in terms of the temple's scale and proportions. The Parthenon featured eight columns on each of its short ends and seventeen columns on each of its long sides. A Porches: The deep pronaos and opisthodomos were replaced with shallow prostyle porches with six columns at either end of the cella. B Roof: The original roof was made of marble, which has since been restored. C Wall decorations: There are no remaining wall paintings or sculptures.
The architects who designed the Parthenon were most likely Athenians who were also known for their work on other major projects such as the Erechtheion and the Propylaea. They may have also been the same people who designed the Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis but evidence of this connection is not clear cut. The date of construction is estimated to be between 447 BC and 421 BC. It was built as part of an annual festival called the Panathenaic Festival, which was held in honor of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and war. This enormous temple was the center of religious activity for the entire city-state of Athens. It served as the venue for important ceremonies, debates, and trials by jury. In addition, it hosted one of the main events of the Panathenaic Festival, which was a parade led by a young man named Butes who represented the god Dionysus.
The edifice has a rectangular floor layout and is built on a 23,000-square-foot base that was part of the Old Parthenon's limestone foundation. The roof was made of marble and had a central dome supported by four spiral stone pillars. The whole construction was covered with gold and silver tiles.
The new Parthenon was built between 447 and 421 B.C. by Athenian architects who used drawings done during the original building's reconstruction in the early 420s B.C. The new temple was larger than the old one and included a theater where religious rites could be performed. It was also used for public meetings and judicial proceedings. In addition, it functioned as a museum housing many of the gods' images that were removed from their temples after Athens' victory over Sparta in 404 B.C.
The temple was destroyed by the Persians in 480 B.C., but its design was continued by Hidalgo de Cisneros, an architect from Sevilla, Spain, who designed the Cathedral of Seville. The new Parthenon was built using materials taken from the old temple and features some similarities to it. For example, both buildings have identical dimensions and share a number of elements in their designs including the position of their doorways, windows, and niches.
A typical temple had a simple rectangular shape. The majority of temples had columns on all four sides. The default width was generally six columns, and the length might vary, although it was usually around twelve columns, resulting in a two-to-one relationship. A colonnaded area is called a ‘peristyle’, and this was the most important part of the building. It was here that the entrance to the temple was located.
There were originally eight columns in a row inside the peristyle. Later on, these were sometimes replaced by more than eight columns, but never by as many as twenty-four. The exact number of columns varied from temple to temple. They were usually made of marble or stone, but some were made of wood. The finest examples have been preserved largely in their original condition after many years of wear and tear during their time in ancient Greece.
The Greeks used various terms to describe the different parts of a temple. The peristyle was called an antron, the area surrounding the peristyle was called a propylon, and the entire temple complex was called a temenos.
In addition to being a religious building, the temple was also used for ceremonial purposes. Priests performed rituals before sacred objects such as statues of the gods. People came from far away to pray at the temple doors.