The cella was divided into two chambers. The smaller chamber served as the city's treasury and had four Ionic columns to support the roof part. The bigger chamber contained the cult figure and was flanked on three sides by a Doric colonnade. It can be assumed that this room was also used for ceremonial purposes.
The total number of rooms in the Parthenon is estimated to be around 20. However, since some rooms were probably shared, the actual number may have been higher.
The cella was originally covered with a flat wooden ceiling which later was replaced by stone. There were windows near the top of the wall on the east side of the building which let in plenty of light but also meant that the inside of the temple was not completely air-conditioned. A system of ducts allowed for some ventilation during hot seasons.
There were no doors between the cells, so people could see each other all the time. This is why most temples were built with only one entrance for everyone to join the ceremony together. Only royal temples had a second entrance for guests to come in separately.
The cella was the holiest place in a temple. Everything about it was designed to make people feel comfortable while they prayed to their gods. People would have washed and anointed themselves before entering the cella.
The architects used remarkable inventiveness in terms of the temple's scale and proportions. The Parthenon featured eight columns on each of its short ends and seventeen columns on each of its long sides. A Porches: At each end of the cella, shallow prostyle porches with six columns replaced the deep pronaos and opisthodomos. These porches may have been used for housing the priests' treasures or for other purposes.
B Stairway: An unusual feature is the spiral staircase that leads up from inside the cella to an upper room called the oecus. This structure was probably used as a gallery for viewing sculptures or as a place where prizes were displayed before awards ceremonies.
C Balcony: On top of the cella stands an open-air balcony called the parterre. It has been suggested that this was used for religious rites such as prayer or hymns but there are more practical reasons why it might have been used for this purpose. For example, if water was needed to wash the sins off idols, the gods would not be offended if prayers were said while standing in liquid.
D Dome: The dome was probably designed as a lantern to shed light into the cella during night hours when the temple was closed. The upstanding walls at each end of the cella were probably intended to prevent wind damage to the roof.
Imbrices and tegulae, massive overlapping marble tiles, covered the roof. The Parthenon is often considered as the pinnacle of Greek architecture. According to John Julius Cooper, the temple "enjoys the distinction of being the most exquisite Doric temple ever erected." The stylistic influence of the Parthenon is evident in many other Doric temples built during the same period.
The roof of the Parthenon was originally covered with gold sheets, but they were long since lost. However, drawings based on good descriptions by ancient writers help us to reconstruct some aspects such as the use of columns at each corner which served to support the weight of the tile covering.
There are several theories about the origin of the roof tiles. Some scholars believe they were brought from somewhere else in Greece while others claim they were imported from Italy or even from Egypt. But what's certain is that they were very expensive at the time they were being used. It has been estimated that enough materials would have been needed to cover the roof of the Parthenon with bronze about 30 years after its construction.
About a century after its construction, parts of the roof began to collapse due to old damage. In A.D. 1457 a major earthquake struck Athens, destroying much of the city including many buildings including the Parthenon. After this event, no further repairs were done to the roof because of the high cost involved.
The tower keep often had two or three levels, with the ground floor housing a kitchen and a storehouse. The first floor was where the lord of the manor lived with his family; it might have had more than one room. At the top of the tower was the roof, which usually only had one room.
Castles were built to protect people's lives, families, and property. They also provided refuge in times of danger. When wars were common, castles became popular among wealthy merchants and princes because they offered protection from attack by other armies.
A castle can be as small as a single building or as large as an entire city block. Most were built using stone obtained either from local sources or from far away places such as France and England. Castles used for defense included high walls that protected the inhabitants inside; those who attacked these castles wanted to do so from outside their range so they usually didn't last long. Those used for storage or as homes for nobles include areas for growing crops or raising livestock within their walls. These castles could last for years after being abandoned by their owners.
There are about 7,000 castles around the world. They can be found everywhere from ancient Egypt to Alaska.
The atrium was the focal point of the overall home design in the typical Roman domus layout. The atrium was the heart of the home's social and political life since it was the principal chamber in the public section of the house (pars urbana). It received natural light through large windows located on all four sides of the room, allowing patrons to enjoy the weather even while inside.
In addition to being a spacious reception area, the atrium served as a cooling place in the summer and a heating source in the winter. A system of pipes or brick vaults covered with clay tiles provided heat in the cold months and cooled the room by means of water flowing through them. In warmer months, fans placed in strategic locations around the room helped to circulate air.
The atrium was also the site of many important household rituals. For example, it was here that slaves would burn trash or flowers as part of their masters' purification ceremonies after serious accidents or crimes.
In addition, the atrium was the place where meals were held with family and friends. It usually consisted of a rectangular space about 30 feet long and 10-15 feet wide. Items such as tables, chairs, and baths could be used as necessary. Buttons and coins have been found buried under the floor of the atrium, which indicates that it was also used for other purposes besides food consumption.