The forms of construction according to fire resistance should be categorized into four groups for the purposes of the code, namely, Non-combustible materials shall be utilized in the construction of structures 15 minutes or more in height, and the inside walls of staircase enclosures should be brickwork or reinforced...
Non-combustible materials include glass, ceramic, concrete, steel, and wood. These materials can only be used to construct non-fire-resistant buildings unless they contain an incombustible material such as stone or some other substance that prevents combustion from occurring.
Fire-resistant materials include masonry and concrete with embedded metal bars or plates. Fire-resistant buildings must have a means of egress that will not be impeded by fire damage, and all doors, windows, and other openings must be properly protected against heat and flame during fires.
Combustible materials include plaster, drywall, timber, and fabrics. Materials of this type can burn if not prevented from doing so. The code requires fire-resistant construction for combustible materials too!
It is important to note that both combustible and non-combustible materials can be found in one structure. For example, a wooden building might have drywall on the interior side of some walls. You cannot assume which category the building falls under based on its exterior siding.
To account for the reaction that a structure will have to a fire that arises within the building as a result of the occupancy it serves, it is critical to appropriately identify a building by its type of construction. Every building must be classed as one of five different styles of construction, according to the building code. These are: frame, masonry, concrete, steel/reinforced concrete, and plastic.
The classification system is based on how the main structural elements of the building are made and attached to each other. There are several different types of systems used for joining together wood or metal members that form the skeletal structure of the building.
Frame buildings have their supports located at specific distances from one another and are usually built using lumber. They can also be called stick-frame or truss-frame structures. Because frame buildings rely primarily on horizontal connections to support themselves, they are easy to destroy when exposed to fire. Firemen need to be careful not to damage any parts of the frame when putting out a fire because if the frame fails then the building will collapse.
Masonry buildings have their supports located far enough away from one another so that the walls between them can be used as load-bearing elements. The masonry for these buildings is made up of blocks of stone or brick. Because masonry buildings are strong and stable, they are often used for public buildings such as schools, courthouses, and government offices.
Buildings are classified into five classes based on their construction: fire-resistant, non-combustible, ordinary, heavy timber, and wood-framed. Fire-resistant buildings must meet certain requirements to be labeled as such. Non-combustible buildings use materials that do not burn for the main structure of the building. They can be built with concrete, metal, or ceramic tiles for its exterior wall surface. Ordinary buildings are constructed from wood, which can be pine or fir; other common choices are lumber and brick. Heavy timber buildings use large trees as their primary material instead of cuttings or lumber. Wood-framed buildings have two or more layers of horizontal beams known as "joists" that support the roof and parts of the walls. These buildings are then covered in siding or sheathing, which is a flat board used as a base for all wall surfaces.
Fire-resistant buildings protect people from the effects of fire by preventing flames from reaching exposed materials such as wood or paint. These structures are required by law in some states to have fire extinguishers located throughout the building. Non-combustible buildings use materials that cannot burn but will still release toxic chemicals when heated up or crushed. Examples include glass and ceramics. These buildings require special attention when working on or near them because they may emit harmful substances.
Type A construction is the most fire-resistant, Type C building is the least fire-resistant, and Type B construction is somewhere in between. * Page 2According to the DTS Provisions, buildings needed to be of Type A and B construction must be non-combustible. They cannot contain any open flammable spaces such as windows or doors. They also cannot have any places where smoke can collect such as high spots on ceilings or walls. Type C buildings are defined as being combustible material containing no more than 15 percent organic content and having a mean burning time of less than 20 minutes when subjected to a flame intensity of 75 square feet per minute. These buildings cannot have open flames, heaters, or any other ignition sources within 10 feet of them. They also cannot have stairways or balconies that go from one floor to another.
Type A buildings were originally designed to withstand fire for an hour or more. This means that they should be made out of a material that does not burn and has very few openings so that smoke does not spread inside the building. The roof should be flat and made of metal or concrete to prevent fire from spreading through it. Wood is the most common material used for Type A buildings because it is easy to find and cheap. If the wood burns, it will not spread the fire to other parts of the building.
Type B buildings are required to be fire-resistant but not necessarily fire-proof.