Three teams developed rival concepts, but they all agreed on the same bridge design: a cable-stay. Tappan Zee Constructors' winning concept for what is presently known as the New NY Bridge will span five kilometers over the Hudson and cost $3.9 billion. It will be the longest cable-stay bridge in the world when it is completed in 2019.
The design team was led by David Childs of DCD Group, with structural engineering by AECOM. The main contractor will be the lowest bidder selected by an international group of companies that include Kiewit Construction Company, LendLease, and Turner Construction.
The New York State Department of Transportation has estimated the first phase of the project will cost about $750 million to build. The second phase, which would extend the new bridge across the Upper Bay to Long Island, could cost up to $5 billion.
Team USA's concept won the public vote, so it will become the next-largest bridge across the Hudson River after the new one. Its two-lane, four-span structure would connect Westchester County to Rockland County, with a center pier standing more than 400 feet above high water. The winning design was proposed by Cohen & Grigsby Corporation and Parsons Infrastructure. They said the total cost was not available.
The design of the project cost $3,500,000. (Steinman Company). The bridge's construction cost $70,268,500. The bridge was built by two main contractors: American Bridge for the superstructure ($44,321,900) and Merritt-Chapman and Scott of New York for the foundations ($25,735,600). The total cost of $70,268,500 included the cost of land ($1,074,700).
When it was completed in July 1957, the Mackinac Bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world. It has since been surpassed by several other bridges. Today, it is ranked 14th by length overall and 6th among double-decker bridges. It remains one of the most popular tourist attractions in Michigan.
The price of the bridge has also become a popular topic for discussion. In 1998, the Mackinac Bridge Authority decided to increase the tolls on the bridge. This caused an outrage from many citizens who said that the bridge was a public resource that should not be sold. In addition, some politicians called for a boycott of the bridge until the tolls were removed. As a result, only about 10% of the traffic using the bridge paid any kind of fee.
In 1999, the bridge authority voted to eliminate its toll booths and switch to automated cameras instead. This decision again drew criticism from citizens who said that this would make the bridge more expensive for those who could not afford to pay the tolls.
The construction consists of 500 prestressed concrete box girder spans over an inaccessible viaduct and two cable-stayed bridges spanning navigation canals. The bridge was the world's longest sea crossing when it opened, and it cost $1.5 billion to build. It connects Zhejiang Province with Jiangsu Province.
This bridge is also known as the Hangzhou Bay Bridge because it crosses Hangzhou Bay. It is a major road bridge in China from Zhejiang Province to Jiangsu Province. The total length of the bridge is 23 km (14 miles), and it has 10 vertical lanes for cars and heavy vehicles. The maximum load that the bridge can carry is 16 trolleys or 80 cars. It was built by a Chinese company called Shanghai Pudong Development Group Co., Ltd. The project was started in 1998 and completed in 2009. This bridge is part of the G4 Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Rail Line.
The main purpose of this bridge is to connect highways between Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces together. It also serves as an important transport link for cargo ships traveling between the east and west coasts of China.
This bridge was designed by Zhang Yalin and Zhu Jiajun. They also designed the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge which is one of the first large scale use of post-tensioned continuous fiberglass trusses in China.
The bridge cost $37 million to build. Stronger nickel steel was employed, and a steel cable length of 25,100 miles was stretched. The road was redecked in 1984 for $54 million, and the bridge has been repainted many times. It currently stands at 16 lanes wide with room for another two lanes on each side.
The new bridge was opened by President Ronald Reagan on October 28, 1987. At the time, it was the longest continuous truss span in the world. It is now ranked second behind only the I-90 Bridge over the Ohio River in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Each panel of the main truss is made up of two sections that overlap by about half their length. These panels are then brought together and bolted to complete the section. There are also 39 other smaller bridges connecting to the Benjamin Franklin Parkway. They include: three pedestrian walkways, a bicycle path, and two car parking ramps.
The winning bid of $15.8 million was submitted by William Francis Kirtland of Cleveland. He also designed both the John F. Kennedy Memorial and the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Bridges further down the river.
The new bridge was expected to last at least 100 years but estimates range from under 20 to over 200 years. The lifespan of this type of bridge depends on how much traffic they receive so they usually need to be replaced before they fail.
Building a bridge over the Bering Strait would be prohibitively expensive, even if there are a handful of islands in the center (the Doimedes) that would reduce the cost to around $105 billion (5 times the price of the English Channel tunnel). The total area of the strait is only about 30 square miles, so even if you packed all the materials into one huge cargo ship and used high-speed drills to dig out holes for the pillars quickly, you wouldn't have enough material. You might be able to get around this by mining the ice from beneath the channel but again, the cost would be astronomical.
The most efficient way to cross an ocean is obviously on a boat, but building a bridge or tunnel requires heavy machinery that is expensive to buy or rent. If you own the sea, however, then bridging gaps in your empire can be an economical solution. In the early days of European colonialism, many bridges were built to connect isolated villages with markets and other settlements, which saved money on trade routes that could otherwise not be used due to the lack of roads. These bridges were often made of wood because metal tools were too expensive at the time. As technology improved and bridges became more durable, they started being constructed out of stone or concrete, which are much cheaper than iron or steel.