A 94-pound bag of Portland cement yields 4.5 cubic feet of concrete. Use 1 part Portland cement to 3-4 parts concrete sand or ordinary purpose sand for thicknesses less than 2 inches and tops. For thicker coats, use 1 part Portland cement to 1 part slag cement or chemical admixture.
Cement is the most common ingredient in concrete, with water and aggregate being two other essential components. Cement serves three main purposes in concrete: It gives the material its strength, it allows it to set into a hard mass, and it helps color the product. Concrete without cement is like putting dry leaves on a tree branch - they may hold their shape, but they're not going to do so well over time.
As cement serves these functions, it becomes apparent that there's a lot of variation between different types of cements. Ordinary portland cement, which is what you'll find used most often in construction projects, has a pH of 12.5-13.5 and is made up of 60% calcium carbonate, 20% silica, and 10% alumina and ferric oxide. It takes more than just adding water to cement to get concrete - the type of cement you use affects how it reacts with water, thereby determining many properties of the final product.
(A cubic yard of concrete requires around forty 80-pound bags of prepared components.) Alternatively, 1 cubic meter of concrete requires around 7.15 bags of Portland cement. There will be 48 cubic meters of sand and.51 cubic meters of gravel. That's about 0.5 cubic yards each of sand and gravel.
The total weight of the cement required is 448 pounds or 205 kilograms. Assuming that the cement is in powder form and has a density of 15 pounds per cubic foot (which is very close to the actual density of common portland cement), then it would take about 28.8 cubic feet to weigh the required amount. This means that one bag of cement would cover an area of about 4 square feet (40 square inches).
One cubic yard of concrete consists of 3 cubic meters of concrete. This means that one cubic yard of concrete requires around 44 40-pound bags of prepared components.
The total weight of the cement required is 576 pounds or 265 kilograms.
One bag of cement weighs around 25 kilograms, and one cubic metre of portland cement weighs approximately 1500 kg, or 1.5 tons, hence the volume of a 25kg bag of cement is 25/1500 = 0.0166 cubic meters. This means that there are about 6.6 million milliliters in a cubic meter of cement.
The density of cement powder is 3 kilos per cubic meter, so the volume of a cube of cement powder weighs about 30 kilos, or 66 pounds. This means that there are about 220 pounds in a cubic meter of cement.
One ton of portland cement will set you back $150,000. Cement is the most used building material after water, and it is estimated that we use enough cement to build a wall about 2 meters high and 7 kilometers long every year. That's about 250,000 barrels of oil!
Cement production uses a lot of energy: between 10% and 20% of the total energy consumption of a country is used for cement manufacturing. In Europe, it is estimated that cement production uses more electricity than heat insulation in buildings by itself. Cement is made from limestone which is decayed organic matter. The process of making cement produces carbon dioxide, dioxins, ammonia, and smoke. Cement dust is very toxic; it contains calcium oxide, sulfur oxides, and aluminum oxide.
Take extra care with any leased equipment you use, as the rental company frequently charges a cleaning fee when you return it. # One cubic yard (27 cubic feet) of concrete requires around five bags of Portland cement, eight cubic feet of sand, and twenty cubic feet of gravel.
Concrete is a common stumbling block for people who want to switch careers but lack experience, so consider getting certified by an organization that specializes in the field, such as the Concrete Sealers Institute or American Concrete Institute. These organizations offer training programs that can help you develop new skills and get hired by companies that use concrete contractors.
After learning about concrete, sand, and gravel requirements for different projects, you should be able to estimate how much material will be needed. If you find yourself short on funds, consider using reclaimed or recycled materials instead of buying new stuff. There are plenty of resources available online and through local businesses that will allow you to recycle your old materials or purchase reduced-price shares of new concrete mixes.
The best way to ensure you have enough material to finish your project is to calculate how much concrete you need early in the process so there's no rush at the last minute. If you wait until the day before you plan to pour your concrete to check the weather forecast, for example, you might not have time to find more material if it turns out you need more than what you originally thought.