Ammann designed the George Washington Bridge as the first of several great long-span bridges in New York City. A 3,500-foot center span suspended between two 570-foot steel towers carried two levels of bridge deck. When construction began, the bridge's anticipated cost was $75 million. However, due to design changes, material shortages, and other issues, the final price came to $230 million.
The foundation for the new bridge was laid down on land that had been owned by the Rutgers University since 1667. The land was donated to the city of New Brunswick by Walter J. Nugent for use as a public park called Rutgers Gardens. Today, this is the site of Pheasant Park.
When completed in 1931, the George Washington Bridge was the longest suspension bridge in the world. It connected New Jersey with Manhattan, crossing over both the Raritan River and Arlington Avenue. The main span was made up of three sections: an 880-foot central section flanked by two 390-foot side sections. There were no vertical supports inside the central section; instead, there were large horizontal members known as "bulkheads" that divided the roadway into nine traffic lanes. These bulkheads provided support for the bridge's decking and railing along with any vehicles or pedestrians standing on them.
The central portion of the bridge was built first.
Cass Gilbert, Montgomery Case George Washington Bridge/Architects: Othmar Ammann
Engineer Othmar Ammann and architect Cass Gilbert collaborated on the design of the George Washington Bridge. The steel-framed double-decker suspension bridge was erected between 1927 and 1931.
The George Washington Bridge is 4,760 feet (1,450 m) long with a 3,500 foot main span (1,100 m). It possessed the world's longest main bridge span when it opened, and it kept that record until the Golden Gate Bridge opened in 1937. The GWB carries traffic between New Jersey and New York City.
The GWB was also unique because it was the first major project of its time to be completed by a woman. His Excellency Elizabeth R. Curley was appointed superintendent for construction in 1872, two years after the contract was awarded to James Walker. She was the first female engineer licensed by the State of New Jersey and one of only three women to hold such a position in any of the original thirteen states. The other two were Mary Ann Cotton, who worked on the Erie Canal, and Rebecca Gratz, who designed and supervised the construction of several canals in Pennsylvania.
Curley died in 1876 at the age of 42 while working on another project for the city. Her replacement, John A. Roebling, took over responsibility for the project that was then five years behind schedule. He had previously built the Brooklyn Bridge and was known as the "father" of the modern suspension bridge design. The new bridge was finished just in time for President Ulysses S. Grant to ride across it during his visit to New York City in 1877.
The bridge cost around $1.5 billion and took more than three years to construct. It also has an observation platform and a 145-meter-tall tower from which guests may pay to admire the sights. The world's longest sea bridge, it connects Zhuhai in Guangdong with Jieyang in Yantai County on the Chinese mainland.
The bridge was built by the Zhejiang Gongshang Bridge Co. Ltd. The company says that the design of the bridge is based on the Pudong-Shanghai Bridge in Shanghai. Construction began in April 2008 and was completed six months later. The opening ceremony was held on March 31, 2009, with various officials including Li Xiuru, governor of Zhejiang Province, attending.
The new bridge has four traffic lanes but only two of them are used as crossing the structure is not possible for vehicles to drive on both sides at once. The fourth lane is reserved for future expansion. There are also two railway lines along the length of the bridge where trains can pass without stopping if there are no cars on the road network.
It is estimated that the bridge will be profitable after five years because its location near tourism destinations means it will attract lots of business travelers who usually spend a lot of money while in the region.