On January 5, 1933, construction began. The project cost more than $35 million ($523 million in 2019 currency), however it was finished on time and $1.3 million under budget (equivalent to $24.5 million today).
The Golden Gate Bridge is one of the most famous landmarks in the world. It is a suspension bridge that connects San Francisco, California, with Marin County. The main span is 1,017 feet (309 m) long and consists of eight traffic lanes and two wide pedestrian walkways called "parks." The bridge's total length is 3,369 feet (1,056 m). It was built by the American company Morrison-Knudsen Corporation (M-K). The chief architect was Ellerbe Mayer. The bridge has been named one of the Seven Modern Wonders of the World.
They are: the Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, the Pyramids of Giza, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the L'Ostia Antica Museum in Rome, and the Brooklyn Bridge.
The Golden Gate Bridge is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Created in 1972, this national park is a United States federal agency and one of the ten largest national parks in the country. The entire area spans approximately 290 square miles (750 km2) and includes land in San Francisco and Marin counties.
This project, which cost $430 million, was finished in 1996. The $430 million price tag included three other major dam building projects. The largest of these was the John F. Kennedy Memorial Dam, also known as the Weldon Spring Dam. This structure is larger than the Theodore Roosevelt Dam and generates enough electricity to power 140,000 homes.
The United States government built all three dams as part of the main water supply system for Washington, D.C. They are now operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The Weldon Spring Dam was financed with a combination of federal funds from the Public Works Administration (PWA) and the Defense Department's Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). The Roosevelt Dam was funded with PWA funds only. The Kennedy Memorial Dam was funded through both the CCC and Interior Department's Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
In addition to being the president at the time of their construction, Theodore Roosevelt was also responsible for design decisions relating to all three dams. He wanted the structures to be bold examples of American engineering talent and industry, and they meet this goal very well. The Weldon Spring Dam was the first large-scale concrete face-seal dam constructed in the world, while the Roosevelt Dam is one of the first large-scale hydroelectric power plants using nuclear technology.
The terminal alone cost $43 million to build, which is around $1 billion today; the overall project cost the Central approximately $80 million. It was an extravagant new train station that was praised when it was completed in 1950 and still attracts visitors today.
Grand Central Terminal was designed by McKim, Mead & White and built by the New York City Board of Transportation. The general contractor was J.E.R. Carpenter Inc. The architect's fee was paid for by John D. Vanderlip and Thomas W. Lamont. The terminal's construction was part of a larger plan by Mayor William O'Dwyer to develop Grand Central as a major transportation hub. This plan also included a new subway line (now known as the IRT Lexington Avenue Line), a new bridge over the Harlem River, and track changes to allow for faster trains.
When it opened its doors for business on February 28, 1950, Grand Central Terminal was the largest railroad station in the world. It remains so even today, although there are now bigger ones. The building's size is reflected in its staff: there were then, and there still are, about 5,000 people working at the terminal.
This has been years in the making, with several roadblocks, including money. According to officials, the total cost was little around $2 million. The main span is made of steel and rests on top of a concrete foundation. It connects Oakland to its new waterfront and offers views of the San Francisco Bay.
The project was announced by Mayor Jerry Brown and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in 2008. It was constructed by the Pippin Group and opened to traffic in April 2014. The blue color comes from the addition of more than 18,000 small plastic balls to the asphalt mix. These reflect light from the sun or headlights, creating a shimmering effect when driven at speed.
There have been concerns about the stability of the bridge since it opened. In January 2015, city officials said they were investigating reports that one of the bridge's main supports had metal fatigue. No one was injured in the incident.
The mayor's office said in February 2015 that repairs would cost up to $750,000. A few months later, it was reported that the city could face legal action over the bridge's instability. One driver had his car hit by another vehicle while crossing the bridge, and police say the first vehicle may not have been visible because of the way it was being driven.
The Government of Canada stated on June 19, 2015, that the overall cost of the project will be $4.239 billion. In addition, the city has set aside funds to pay for additional costs that may arise due to climate change impact studies or other factors beyond its control.
Construction began in October 2009 and is expected to be completed in late 2019. The new bridge will connect Quebec City to a section of highway known as the Périgord Expressway.
It will be the first crossing of the Saint Lawrence River from Quebec City to the Atlantic Ocean. The existing De Fontaine Bridge, which crosses the river just north of the city center, serves vehicles and pedestrians but was built before international standards for high-rise bridges had been established. It also suffers from structural problems including severe vertical movement due to wind loading.
The bridge's entire construction cost was $32 million. It consisted of a main span of 1,200 feet (365 m) over the Intracoastal Waterway and eight 100-foot (30 m) spans connecting it to land. The main span was the longest of any fixed link bridge in the world when it was completed in 1969.
The bridge was named after its principal donor, John D. Moore. He was a Florida businessman who owned commercial fishing boats that used the Intracoastal Waterway as a route between ports in Florida and Georgia. The boats needed safe passage across bridges that were being built or improved at the time. Mr. Moore played an important role in getting federal funding for these projects through his contacts with members of Congress.
When it was finished, the bridge became part of the state highway system and was designated State Road 998. It connects Dauphin Island, which is north of Mobile Bay, with South Dauphin Island. There are no tolls on the bridge or anything else related to its financing.
The bridge, which was originally predicted to cost $35 million to build, ended up costing more than $100 million. Many of the issues are reported to have been caused by orders of Chinese-made steel, which had a number of non-conformities that required to be addressed. The final price does not include interest paid on debt or additional funds needed for inflation or other costs.
In 1998, then-President Clinton announced that the federal government would fund 100 percent of the cost of building a new bridge across the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. In return, the state of Maryland was granted $150 million in federal transportation funds over 10 years. Construction on the bridge began in February 2000 and it was opened to traffic the following year. It is known as the Walter E. Washington Bridge after its main sponsor.
The decision to build the bridge instead of upgrading the existing one was made when it was determined that the cost would be too high. At the time, the existing bridge was considered by many to be inadequate for modern traffic needs.
It is estimated that the new bridge saves drivers about 15 minutes in travel time compared to the old one. However, some local residents oppose the project because they claim it will bring increased traffic to an area already suffering from congestion. Others argue that the state should not be spending taxpayer money on a bridge that will only serve to attract more traffic to the area.