Roman architecture spans the era from the formation of the Roman Republic in 509 BC until the early fourth century AD, when it is categorized as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. During this time, the Romans built many public and private buildings, including temples, theaters, basilicas, arches, aqueducts, roads, and bridges.
Ancient buildings are constructed out of stone, brick, or wood, depending on the climate and other factors such as what kind of building they want to create. Ancient stones are usually taken from locations that contain no living people (such as monuments and ruins) for reasons of tradition and identity. Other materials may be used if you have them available or if not, then stones will do. The quality of construction varies depending on how rich the person building the house is. A poor man would make do with whatever was available to him while a rich one would hire professional builders or architects.
In conclusion, ancient buildings can range from very old to quite new looking. There are also different types of construction techniques used by the ancients. Some buildings use only stone or only wood, but most use both. Sometimes roofs or parts of them are made of tiles while others are not. Also, ancient buildings can be anything from just a few boards nailed together to really nice ones with all kinds of details and colors.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the 8th century BC founding of the Italian city of Rome to the 5th century AD collapse of the Western Roman Empire, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), the Roman Republic (509 BC–27 BC), and the Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Rome was founded on the summit of the Palatine Hill by Romulus around 753 BC. The monarchy was replaced by a republic that lasted from 509 BC to 27 BC when Caesar's dictatorship ended Roman democracy. The Roman Empire then continued until it collapsed in 476 AD.
Rome reached its political height under the Emperor Augustus who ruled from 30 BC to AD 14. His reign saw the introduction of many improvements to government infrastructure including roads, aqueducts, and public baths. He also managed to reduce military conflict with his rivals by forming an alliance known as the Pax Romana - the "Roman Peace".
Augustus' great-grandson Caligula became emperor in 37 but was murdered five years later. His sister Drusilla married Hitler so perhaps not all bad guys in history were bad.
The empire fell in 476 after which date there was no more expansion or development by any Roman. The city was abandoned until the 5th century when Stilicho built a new city on the site of old Rome.
Other renowned Roman Empire structures include the Arch of Titus (32 AD), the Arch of Septimius Severus (203 AD), the Baths of Caracalla (finished in 217 AD), and the various palaces erected by the emperors. The Medieval period that followed Rome's collapse in 476 AD was a difficult period in the city-history. State's power was divided among many kingdoms, including those of Germany, France, and Spain. Only under the rule of the House of Habsburg did Rome begin to rise again.
The Renaissance began in Italy around 1450 and reached its zenith in the 17th century, but it is still considered to be part of the Renaissance worldwide. In Europe, this period saw an awakening of culture after the Dark Ages, when literacy rates were low and scientific knowledge was limited. Intellectual life was dominated by philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato who wrote about politics, society, science, art, and history. Italian humanists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are often cited as leaders of the movement.
Rome's modern era began with the unification of Italy in 1871. The country has gone through several political upheavals since then, including fascism, communism, and democracy, but it has always managed to emerge stronger from these crises. The capital city of Rome is an important economic center with industries including electronics, chemicals, and food processing all located within close proximity of each other.
Quick Facts About Rome's Roman Forum Some constructions in the Roman Forum date back to the 8th century BCE, while the most recent structure was built in 312 ACE. The oldest still-standing building in the Roman Forum is the Capitoline Temple, which features high podiums and Ionic columns. The second-oldest building is the Basilica Ulpia, which was originally constructed as a military tribunal building in 222 CE.
Rome's Roman Forum was ancient Rome's central public space, its "town square". It was laid out between 753 and 713 BC, and used for religious rituals and legal proceedings by the Etruscans and Romans. The area was transformed into a military camp after the Etruscan victory over the Romans at the Battle of Lake Trasimene in 217 BC, and later used as a marketplace and public hall. The word "forum" comes from the Latin word meaning "marketplace"; thus, the Roman Forum was originally called the Marketplace of Romulus. In the early years of the Republic, criminal cases were tried here by judges and jurors who sat on stone benches arranged in rows; this tradition continues in the modern courtroom scenes in The Trial.
The most important political events of the early Roman history were held in the Roman Forum.
Here is a list of the top ten most amazing ancient Roman monuments of architecture that demonstrate the Romans' architectural prowess: 10th. Septimius Severus Arch This massive arch was built in 203 AD to commemorate the remarkable Roman victory against the Parthians in the waning years of the second century. The arch stands over 20 feet high and 180 feet long, and it remains one of the largest military monuments ever constructed with a single piece of stone. It can be seen in modern-day Damascus, Syria.
9th. Colosseum The Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheater located near the center of Rome. It was built by the emperor Vespasian as a venue for gladiator contests. Originally called the Flavian Amphitheatre after its builder, it has also been known as the Arena of Rome and the Palatine Arena. The term "Colosseum" comes from the Greek word kolossion, which means "hellish monster".
8th. Capitolium The Capitolium is a temple on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome. It was originally built to house Jupiter's ivory thunderbolt, but it was later used for other purposes too. The original construction date of this monument is unknown but based on its style it may have been built during the reign of Augustus. The term "capitolium" simply means "tall roof".