It required the application of technology never before utilized in the construction of a bridge of this magnitude, measuring no less than 2460 meters in length and rising to a height of around 150 meters. It is a multiatirantado, with six parts of 342 m in length resting on seven pillars, which are supported at the ends of access in two 204-meter-long tranches. The total weight of the viaduct is 2200 tons.
The bridge was built by Zaha Hadid's design firm, Zaha Hadid Architects, for the Trans-European Motorway E55 between France and Spain. It was opened to traffic in May 2003. The name "Millau Viaduct" comes from the town near the site where it is located: Le Viaduc de la Déesse (The Goddess' Viaduct).
In terms of volume, it is the largest single-span arch bridge in the world, exceeding the previous record held by the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge over the Ohio River between Kentucky and West Virginia (1895).
The bridge has been criticized for its visual impact and for being out of character with the rest of London's architecture. However, it does provide a unique perspective of the city center from the surrounding suburbs. It also serves as a landmark that can be seen for many miles around.
Photo taken by Linzi Warner from her bedroom window in Yorkshire, England, on 12 April 2004.
The bridge is 800 feet (240 meters) long and has two towers, each 213 feet (65 meters) tall and built on piers. The 200-foot (61-meter) center span between the towers is divided into two equal bascules, or leaves, that can be raised to an angle of 86 degrees to allow river traffic to pass. The bridge was designed by Sir John Rennie and opened in 1824.
In addition to being a crossing point for vehicles, the bridge also serves as a rail line with four traffic lanes and one walking/cycling lane in each direction. A grade separation project completed in 1958 provided for construction of a new road tunnel under the center of the bridge, which has since been used by both pedestrians and cyclists as well as cars, buses, and trucks.
The tower houses the clock that controls the opening and closing of the bascules of the central span. It also contains several other clocks, some of which are still operated by hand. The oldest clock on the tower was installed in 1825 and is the largest single-movement mechanical clock in Europe. It requires 64 men armed with sledgehammers to strike it once per day at noon. The mechanism weighs more than 20 tons and was made in London by J. & W. Moon.
The lighter double clock was given as a present to the city of London by the citizens of Bruges and installed in the tower in 1855.
The main bridge is 225 feet long and provides 65 feet of vertical clearance and 180 feet of horizontal clearance across the Intracoastal Waterway. The average span is 136 feet. The bridge was built in 25 months and opened to traffic five months ahead of schedule. It was the first major project undertaken by the newly formed Florida Department of Transportation.
The Mid-Bay Bridge is used by almost 7 million vehicles a year. It is one of three crossings over the Intracoastal Waterway in Miami-Dade County (the others are the MacArthur Causeway and the Julia Tuttle Causeway).
The original Mid-Bay Bridge was completed in 1963. At that time, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world. Since then, two more bridges have been constructed nearby: the Western Mid-Bay Bridge (built in 1972) and the Eastern Mid-Bay Bridge (built in 1979). Together, these three bridges provide four separate lanes of traffic in each direction.
Each of the Mid-Bay Bridges has nine large towers with vertical suspenders holding the deck above the water. The main part of the bridge consists of three separate sections: East, Middle, and West. Each section is made up of eight traffic lanes and two shoulder lanes for parking or biking. The total length of the Mid-Bay Bridge is 2.5 miles with its end points at North Point Park and South Point Park.
It is sometimes referred to as the half-way arch bridge. This style of arch bridge is made of reinforced concrete or steel. The length of the Hell Gate Bridge is 5,151 meters (16,900 feet). The longest span measures 279.9 meters (977.5 feet). The lowest point of the bridge is 2.4 meters (8 feet) above sea level. The highest point is 15.7 meters (52 feet) above high water.
The width of the Hell Gate Bridge varies depending on the location. The sides of the central portion are 8 meters (26 feet) wide, while the ends are 3.9 meters (13 feet) wide. The roadbed is also 8 meters (26 feet) wide.
There are two main spans across the East River connecting New York City with Long Island. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connects Brooklyn with Staten Island, and it is one of only two double-decker bridges in New York City (the other being the George Washington Bridge). It has three levels: a 10-lane toll bridge, a 4-lane non-tolled section for motor vehicles, and a 2-lane elevated parkway. The main span is 3,595 meters (11,850 feet) long and has 12 vertical pillars every other column of which is white with a black cap. The distance between each pillar is approximately 42 meters (138 feet).
The bridge measures 631 meters in length and 13.5 meters in width. The bridge is made up of 376 pre-stressed beams and 47 pre-stressed spans. Six metres above the river, the bridge arch rises. Every day, almost 23,000 cars pass the bridge. It remains one of the most popular attractions in London.
The name Forster comes from a family that lived near the site of the future bridge. A Mr. John Forster built it in 1767 to replace an earlier bridge that had been damaged by floods. He advertised its construction in the newspaper and received many inquiries about how it would be built. The new bridge was also damaged by floods and had to be replaced once again. This time it was done properly and has remained stable since then.
The original Forster Bridge was a single lane bridge. In 1872, it was expanded to have two lanes. In 1958, the old deck was replaced with concrete, which remains today. Despite these repairs and replacements, the structure of the Forster Bridge is still based on the design of its first version: a wooden bridge with a single central pier.
Its location directly across the River Thames from Westminster makes the Forster Bridge an important link between the city and south-west London. It is particularly useful for commuters who live in the South Bank area, as it provides a quick route across the river into Central London.
The bridge is 60m (200 ft) long with a half-length arch span and rises 18m (59 ft) over the Severn. The bridge is prone to fractures and has been significantly rebuilt several times, the first time in 1802. It was then known as the Royal Salute Bridge and was constructed for the same reason as its sister bridge, the Queen's Gate Bridge: to provide a crossing for the traffic of St James's Park.
The iron part of the bridge is 5.5m (18 ft) wide and weighs about 14 tons. The arches that support it are 3.6m (12 ft) high and made of wood. At the time of its construction, this was the largest single-span wooden arch bridge in Europe.
The bridge cost £10,000 to build and at the time was said to be the greatest engineering project in Britain after the Great Wall of China. It has been described as "a masterpiece of civil engineering" and has been called "the most beautiful bridge in London".
It remains open today but there are plans to replace it with a new bridge or tunnel. If it were replaced by a tunnel, the old one would be preserved as a pedestrian bridge or perhaps even turned into a footpath.