The foundations of the Hypostyle Hall were placed first, followed by the bases of all the columns and the lowest course of blocks for the walls. They then buried the entire region with earth. The next course of stones for all the columns and walls was then set down and buried. This process was repeated until the entire building was complete.
Hypostyle is an ancient Greek word meaning "under a roof". It is used to describe a type of architecture in which large open rooms are divided by colonnades of equal-sized pillars without any supporting beams. The term is particularly applied to ancient Egyptian buildings in which large chambers are floored with stone slabs and divested of any internal supports except for the pillars which divide them.
Such buildings were especially common in Egypt, where they were used to house religious objects that needed light but not support. The Egyptians called their sacred edifices hypostases, which means "under a roof".
In later centuries, the term came to be used for similar structures in Greece and Rome as well. The Basilica Ulma in Istanbul, Turkey is one example of a structure that combines aspects of both Egyptian and Greek architecture. It is considered the largest church in the Ottoman Empire.
The Venetian Arsenal on the edge of Venice City limits was built in 1495 as a storehouse and shipyard for the city-state.
A hypostyle hall was found in the majority of ancient Egyptian temples. A hypostyle is an Ancient Greek name for a structure with rows of columns supporting its roof. To support a higher ceiling in the central nave, columns along the central axis were erected taller than the rest. These tall pillars provided much-needed extra headroom for those attending religious services or viewing artworks inside the temple.
The first known example of this type of building was built around 538 B.C. by Daedalus, one of King Pyramids' architects. It was used for ceremonial purposes such as royal weddings and funerals. The second example was built about 20 years later by Mycerinus. This building was also used for ceremonial purposes but it was more like a large church with a high dome rather than a traditional pyramid.
The third and most famous example was built four years after Mycerinus' building by Chephren. Like his predecessors, Chephren used this new style of building for ceremonial purposes. But he is best known for designing his own version of the hypostyle hall called "the chapel of Pharaoh" (or pharaoh's chamber). In this room, which was attached to the end wall of his pyramid, Chephren painted a picture of himself being carried on the back of a chariot driven by a lion while soldiers fight snakes and other animals during his burial ceremony.
When a hall was elevated to the top story, the floor was almost always timber, supported either by a series of wooden pillars in the basement below, as in Chepstow's Great Hall (pictured left), or by stone vaulting. The upper floor was usually just that: an additional room, often with a balcony or terrace.
In larger castles, sometimes only the great halls and chambers were planned as full-fledged floors; the rest of the building would be used for storage or accommodation. In smaller structures, all the rooms might be intended from the beginning. No matter what, though, all the floors needed to be able to support the weight of people walking on them.
The main material for floors was wood, although stone was also used instead. Both materials are available in many different shapes and sizes, so they could be used to create floors that looked like flagstones or parquet. But most floors were made from strips of wood that were joined together at right angles, like sheets of plywood. These were easy to find, cheap, and durable. They could also be painted or stained to make them look nice. Of course, they needed to be maintained regularly, but this was not a difficult task.
Castles were built during periods of growth and prosperity. So even if a kingdom or city-state went into decline after being founded, its buildings still usually remained standing.
Hall Heorot was constructed as a result of the kingdom's military achievements under Hrothgar's leadership. Within the walls, he would distribute gifts to his retainers as well as the men gathered there to drink mead with their king and listen to music. It was destroyed by Grendel, a monster. God ordered that it be rebuilt within a year, but Hrothgar died before it was completed.
Here is how one man described the hall: "It was built like a great house with many rooms, and it took eight men to lift a door beam."
The reference to "many rooms" may indicate that it was not only large, but also luxurious. This would help to explain why Hrothgar gave it to people who had served him faithfully over the years. Men who worked for him received food and lodging inside the wall, in addition to their wages.
God wanted to show His love for Hrothgar by allowing him to rule over such a large kingdom at such a young age. However, this also made him vulnerable because anyone could have killed him in battle. Therefore, God created other worlds where Hrothgar could fight against evil while still being protected by Him.
Heorot was named after Hrothgar's family name. It means "home of the Heathobards", which was what they called themselves before they became part of the kingdom of the Angles.
The outside walls were constructed entirely of wattle and daub (Flechtwerk). By the Carolingian era, buildings erected for the nobles featured wooden, load-bearing posts set on wood or stone foundations. Such uprights, known as standers, were extremely robust and endured for hundreds of years. They were often carved with elaborate designs and painted bright colors. The space between each post and the next was filled with wattle and daub or dressed stone. A thatched roof covered everything but the ground floor, where it was usually free of vegetation.
In northern Germany, during the early Middle Ages, timber was in short supply so builders used stone instead. The stones were quarried and then shaped into bricks or blocks which were used to construct houses. Over time, this method became more common than building with wattle and daub.
During the 11th century, French architects began to design and build houses with concrete. It was not until the late 13th century that Germans started using this new technology too. Concrete is much stronger than wood and can bear heavy loads. It's also easy to work with and allows you to make large structures such as churches quickly and efficiently.
German towns and cities in the Middle Ages were mostly made of wood. So when they wanted to build a house that could withstand harsh weather conditions and protect its inhabitants from harm, they used this strong yet lightweight material.