The Building Procedure Some were cut from the mountain ridge's granite bedrock. Hundreds of men moved the massive stone up the steep mountain slope without the use of wheels. The structures of Machu Picchu were constructed using a method known as "ldquo ashlar." The stones are carved to fit together without the need of mortar. This is a difficult technique to do and requires accurate measuring skills.
The Inca used this building procedure on all their major projects. It is thought that only the emperor or one of his ministers would have had the power to order such construction.
Machu Picchu was built around 1493-1472 AD by the Inca emperor Pachacuti. He wanted to create a new royal city where his people could live in peace after years of war with the Spanish invaders.
During his lifetime, Pachacuti conquered most of southern Peru and ruled over more than 10 million people. He also built many other cities across the empire. But none of them survived past his death in 1572. Why wasn't this emperor able to keep the wars away from Machu Picchu? Historians think that he may have had too much involvement in military campaigns.
After Pachacuti's death, his son Huayna Cápac continued to build his father's kingdom. But in 1605, another war broke out with the Spanish invaders.
Machu Picchu, located in the Sacred Valley, is an example of the Incas adapting building tactics to the area's geography. While other Pre-Columbian societies built man-made mountains, the Incas focused on the natural geography surrounding them. These include mountain ranges, plateaus, and valleys that provided resources for agriculture and shelter from extreme weather conditions.
Machu Picchu was built as a religious sanctuary for the intrepid explorers who made their way into remote areas of the New World looking for gold, silver, and other valuable resources. The site is believed to have been constructed between 1450 and 1541 AD by the legendary "Inca" ruler Pachacuti. He used forced labor, including children, to build his city deep in the high Andes Mountains.
Although not all details of Pachacuti's life are known, what is known about him indicates that he was a great leader who brought stability to a society that had fallen into chaos after the death of its first "Inca" ruler. Under Pachacuti's direction, Machu Picchu was built nearly 400 feet (120 m) above sea level in order to be protected from harsh weather conditions. The location was chosen because it was far away from any other major city or town where its builders could practice their religion freely.
Machu Picchu is the Inca emperor Pachacuti's royal citadel and an outstanding landmark recognized for its holiness and estate. In the history of civil engineering, the engineering skills utilized in the construction of Machu Picchu in combination with the natural setting are outstanding. The location was selected by the Incas to be free from earthquakes and avalanches and to have access to abundant water sources.
The main reason why Machu Picchu is known as one of the greatest works of civil engineering is due to its unique design and integration into the surrounding environment. The city was built as a sacred retreat for the Emperor alone where he could escape from the noise of warring tribes outside its walls. As well, it served as a place of prayer for the Emperor to seek guidance from the gods on important decisions he had to make.
During its lifetime, Machu Picchu was used only by men; women, children, and slaves were kept inside the city walls. The men who constructed the site were given raw materials such as rocks and trees to use in their work. They did not receive payment for their efforts except for some small items that may have been given to them by the Emperor.
Machu Picchu was abandoned when the Spanish invaded Peru in 1532. The city was never attacked during its lifetime but simply lost its purpose once the Emperor no longer needed it.
Machu Picchu is physical proof of the urban Inca Empire at its pinnacle of power and achievement—a fortress of cut stone so securely fitted together without mortar that its fissures can still be pierced by a knife blade. The only reason it has survived more than 500 years after the Incas were overthrown is because it was never captured by any enemy army.
The Incas built Machu Picchu around 1450-1490 AD, just as the Spanish conquest was beginning. It was probably designed by the emperor who ordered its construction, Prince Henry of Ancreneo. He appointed a team of architects to design the complex but probably did much of the work himself. They used local materials mostly taken from nearby sites, including ash for its fine powder which could be used in plastering walls and ceilings.
Machu Picchu is almost 800 meters above sea level on a mountain ridge between two lakes. This protected location allowed the Incas to avoid conflict with other tribes or countries. It also meant that when war did come they were already equipped with a sophisticated urban center worthy of attention from anyone interested in architecture.
The complex consists of over 200 buildings, many of them clustered around central plazas, with narrow streets leading off them. There are temples, palaces, workshops, storerooms, and defensive towers.
Along with faults, tectonic forces pulverized the unyielding granite of the 250-million-year-old Machu Picchu batholith. The Inca dug up the previously loosened rubble as they followed the faults. The quarried granite stones were then utilized to create walls and structures.
Machu Picchu is an ancient city built within a mountain in Peru. Its construction began around 1450 and it was completed in 1540. The original population of the city may have been as high as 6,000 people. Today, only about 5% of Machu Picchu is considered to be in good condition. The rest requires maintenance or restoration.
Inca builders used local materials such as gravel, sand, and clay to construct their buildings. They also used wood, stone, and metal for tools. These materials are very strong but not necessarily useful for tools required for modern building projects. The Incas invented two types of tools: one for digging and another one for cutting things with edges. There are several theories about how these tools were made. One theory is that metals were stripped off trees by hand until only sharp points remained. Another theory says that cores were taken from hardwood trees and holes were drilled in them using obsidian blades. Still another theory claims that metals were pounded out of rocks using hard stones as hammers. None of these theories has been proven correct.