The Indus Valley Civilization engraved designs into the bottom face of a stamping seal. The Indus towns are known for their urban planning, baked brick dwellings, extensive drainage and water supply systems, and clusters of big, non-residential buildings. The people also built large reservoirs and canals to control the flow of water during floods and droughts.
These are just some of the many things that went into designing these cities. In fact, much of what we know about town planning in the Indus Cities comes from excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Researchers have discovered elaborate street plans with wide avenues lined with trees and decorated with wells, temples, and other public buildings. There were no houses or shops outside of the major settlements, so all the people who lived there must have been employees of the city government or merchants visiting from elsewhere. The cities probably had rulers who decided where new settlements would be created and destroyed existing ones to make way for their own projects. However, unlike in modern cities where land is acquired by governments for commercial purposes, the Indus people apparently acquired land on which to build their cities.
After the flooding of the Indus River abandoned villages were refounded as new cities. Scientists think this may have been done to provide more space for expansion or because political leaders wanted to promote their own ideas by creating new settlements from scratch.
Origins and Characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus civilization's script writing has been discovered on stamp seals, ceramics, tablets, tools, and weaponry. Stamp seals are the most common sort of inscription, and they are the topic of this photo essay. The earliest known stamp seal comes from Pakistan's Balochistan province and is dated to about 3300 B.C.
The oldest known written language is ancient Egyptian. But there are other ancient languages such as Mesopotamian cuneiform, Elamite, and Anatolian Hittite that have been discovered through archaeological excavation.
Stamp seals were used by civil servants in many cities throughout Asia. They usually display a head with an impressed ring seal or hallmark above it. The mark served as evidence of ownership by the government agency responsible for regulating commerce along the river trade routes.
Tablets are flat, thin pieces of stone or clay on which writings can be done using an instrument called a stylus. There are several thousand tablets dating from 2400 to 600 B.C. found all over the world. Many of these documents are accounts dealing with business transactions or land deals. Others include letters, poems, and scientific papers.
Tools are objects used in manufacturing or repairing goods or buildings. They include axes, adzes, chisels, nails, pins, and saws.
The Indus Valley Civilization had two major urban centers: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. These towns were developed along the Indus River's shore. Each city featured well-planned architecture, public granaries, and a well-functioning sewage and drainage system. The cities also included large numbers of houses with two or three rooms each, which suggests that they were intended for extended families or groups of friends.
Both cities were destroyed by fire. Scientists think this may have been done deliberately to destroy evidence of some important event. It is possible that these disasters caused the people in these cities to move away from their original locations; perhaps there was no room for them in another part of the country. In any case, it seems that the Indus Valley civilization didn't survive long after these fires.
Have you ever wondered how ancient civilizations like the Egyptians or Mesopotamians could have built such huge structures without using modern tools? The truth is that they didn't! Tools such as axes, adzes, and hammers have been found used in construction projects. However, many structures such as pyramids or temples have been built without using any tools at all. Engineers say this shows that humans are naturally motivated to build things that last longer and use less material than those who came before them.
In conclusion, the Indus Valley civilization was one of the first civilizations in history and it lasted for more than 1000 years.
Personal hygiene, town planning, the construction of burnt-brick dwellings, pottery, casting, metal forging, and the manufacture of cotton and woolen textiles are all important aspects of Indus Valley civilisation. 3. The Mohenjo-Daro people possessed the best bathing facilities, drainage systems, and personal hygiene expertise. They used cuttlefish bone to make needles and fish hooks.
4. Harappa was a city where people lived a peaceful life. There were no wars or violence here. People grew rice, wheat, barley, vegetables, fruits, flowers, and trees here. They also raised cows, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, and elephants!
5. The Indus people were not only good at farming but also very skilled workers. They made beautiful jewelry, instruments, tools, and weapons from bronze, copper, gold, and silver.
6. The Rakhigarhi people built large houses with separate rooms for eating, sleeping, and working. They also had bathrooms with hot and cold running water. Their houses had three floors - the ground floor was used for storage, the first floor was used as living quarters, and the second floor was used for manufacturing and working with metals.
7. The Indus people traveled by boat on the rivers that passed through their lands. They also used carriages pulled by animals such as horses, donkeys, and bulls.