The towers had a square design and measured around 207 feet (63 m) on each side. Yamasaki's fear of heights and desire to make building inhabitants feel secure were mirrored in the buildings' tiny office windows, which were barely 18 inches (45 cm) wide. The effect was to create an impression of openness even though the towers were actually very solid structures.
Yamasaki wanted to offer his tenants more space for less money than what other skyscrapers were then costing, so he built them to be as thin as possible while still being strong enough to support their weight. The result is that these towers are extremely light yet very stable-they have withstood many earthquakes without failure.
People often wonder how the towers with their small windows stay cool in the summer and warm in the winter. The answer is simple: They don't. Although the buildings do contain some mechanical equipment, they mostly rely on natural ventilation through their large openings (which can be opened during hot days or closed during cold nights).
In addition, the entire top floor of both towers was left empty except for two huge clocks designed by Kienzle. These clocks provided the time for thousands of miles around when stopped at different times by different pilots who were flying rescue missions after World War II.
As you can see, there are many interesting facts about the Tokyo Tower that you didn't know before reading this article.
The skyscraper is thin, with 14,000 square feet (1,300 m2) of floor area on each story. In addition to the 58-story tower, there is a 125-foot (38-meter) 11-story tower on the complex's northeast corner. The total height of both towers is 204 feet (62 meters). There are no basement or ground floors at this location.
The building was designed by O'Neil Ford Purdy Architects and constructed by Chicago's Durable Construction Co. It opened for business in 2002 after being delayed due to financial difficulties that followed the September 11 attacks. The firm also designed the Willis Tower (formerly known as the John Hancock Building), which is taller than the Millennium Tower. The Willis Tower is 324 feet (98 meters) tall.
The top three floors of the Millennium Tower are named after women who have been influential in science and technology: Einstein, Newton, and Tesla. The bottom five floors are named after men who have made important contributions to science and technology: Boleyn, Faraday, Maxwell, Moissan, and Priestly.
When it first opened its doors, the Millennium Tower was the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere. This title has since been surpassed by the Sears Tower in Chicago but it remains a landmark in downtown Chicago.
The building is owned by Millennium Partners LLC, which is headquartered in New York City.
The perimeter walls of the towers were 210 feet (64 m) on each side, with beveled corners. The perimeter columns were designed to withstand practically all lateral loads (including wind loads) while also sharing gravity loads with the core columns. The average wall thickness was approximately 18 inches (45 cm), including an 8-inch (20 cm) floor slab.
The height of both towers was equivalent, at 110 stories and 1,776 feet (541 m). They were built as a pair so that they would have been balanced against each other weight-wise. The idea was that if one tower had been stronger than the other, then the weaker tower would have collapsed under its own weight.
Both towers were made out of steel framework, with outer walls made of concrete. The inner core of both towers was hollow, leaving only the exterior walls standing. This unique design reduced the overall weight of the buildings and improved their seismic performance.
The World Trade Center towers were the highest building in New York until 1972 when the Sears Tower in Chicago was completed. They remain the second and third tallest buildings in New York behind the One World Trade Center now under construction.
Construction on the World Trade Center began in March 1973 and they were officially opened for business on February 14, 1977. The total cost of the project was $57 million ($250 million in 2007 dollars).
The framework of the building is a "bundled tube" arrangement of nine squares with 75-foot sides (for an overall width of 225 x 225 ft between exterior column lines and 229 feet at outside faces). 6.45:1 is the height to width ratio. The building has a total floor area of about 740,000 square feet (69,840 m2), and it has 50 floors.
Willis Tower was designed by O'Hare and Smith and built by the Chicago Bridge & Iron Company. It opened for business in 1969 as the world's tallest office building. The current record holder is the Shanghai Pudong International Airport Terminal 3 which is 2,722 feet (843 m) tall, but it will be surpassed when it is demolished to make way for the third terminal.
When it first opened its doors, anyone who visited the observation deck could buy an admission ticket for $5. Today, tickets cost $18 for adults, $14 for seniors (ages 65 and older), $12 for children (under 12 years old), and free for children under five. A special elevator takes visitors up to the 96th floor observatory where they can get a view of downtown Chicago, Lake Michigan, and beyond. The top floor restaurant, The Sky Room, serves food such as crab cakes, pasta dishes, and chili hot dogs, among others.
The first three floors of the 2,800,000 square foot (260,000 m 2) office skyscraper, including the ground level, would have had around 100,000 square feet (9,300 m 2) of retail space. Following One World Trade Center, the tower would have been the second-tallest building on the World Trade Center site. The 110-story tower was planned to be 1,776 feet (541 m) tall, with spires reaching 1,350 feet (411 m).
Construction on the $4 billion project began in March 1973 and it was completed in February 2002, at a cost of $1.8 billion. At the time of its opening, it was the largest construction project in New York City history. The twin towers were the tallest buildings in the world for three years after their opening.
In September 2008, after passing its annual fire safety test, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) issued a report that concluded that the World Trade Center complex's fire protection systems "performed effectively" in preventing the spread of fire throughout the buildings.
However, the report also found that improvements need to be made to certain aspects of the complex's fire protection system. For example, the agency said that more fire doors should be installed on lower floors to prevent the flow of fire from one floor to another.