It is a one-of-a-kind fusion of Islamic, Persian, and Indian forms. It contained horizontal and vertical parts that were linked together with brackets. Mehrab, arches, vaults, domes, and other architectural elements are used to fill the empty areas. The overall appearance of a mausoleum is that of a large tower with an octagonal base.
Mughal buildings tend to be larger and more elaborate than those in India. They also use different materials including marble, stone, and wood. In fact, the empire was famous for its use of marble and stone, which came from all over the world and was imported through the port of Mumbai (then called Bombay).
One of the most important differences between Mughal and Indian architecture is that the former uses symmetry as a principle instead of imitation. Also, while Indian temples have multiple stories, the mausoleums of the Mughals are only one story high but they can have many rooms. Finally, the main entrance to a Mughal building will always be on the front side, while in India the main door usually faces east or west depending on the religion of the site.
There are several schools of thought regarding the origin of Mughal architecture. Some scholars believe it was inspired by Arabic mosques while others argue that it was derived from Chinese structures.
The Indo-Islamic architecture reflected the new sultans' artistic legacy and encompassed both religious and secular constructions. While indigenous architecture is known as Trabeate, in which the space is spanned by beams set horizontally, Islamic architecture is arcuate, in which arches are utilized to bridge a space. The former uses wood as its main material while the latter employs stone.
During the Sultanate period, large parts of today's Indonesia were still inhabited by indigenous people who built their houses using only local materials. These people had no contact with foreigners and thus did not adopt any of their customs. Instead, they developed their own way which combined some Indonesian elements with others from abroad. This unique house design was used throughout most of Indonesia including Java, Bali, Sumatra, and Kalimantan. Although it is difficult to find evidence of these houses today, they probably resembled wooden huts with flat roofs made of palm leaves or bamboo. There might have been also temporary shelters made of woven cane or even grass.
In addition to residential buildings, mosques were also constructed during this time. They usually include a square or rectangular plan with a dome at the top. The Javanese love for detail resulted in mosques being decorated with beautiful carvings and paintings. For example, the Kudus Mosque in Central Java has very detailed stonework with floral patterns and geometric shapes. It is estimated that this mosque was built between 1459 and 1467.
Carved Hindu symbols such as tasseled ropes, bells, tendrils, cows, and foliage may be seen throughout the mosque's recycled brickwork. Islamic decorations such as diapered arabesque patterns and Quranic inscriptions are included in the corbelled arch screenwork and subsequent expansions. The central dome is the most elaborate feature and it is supported by four large, tapering wooden pillars with intricate carvings of plants and animals.
The name "Quwwat-ul-Islam" means "the quality of faith of Islam." The mosque was built to commemorate the victory of Islam over its rival religions Hinduism and Buddhism in AD 1556. It is said that during construction, a Buddhist temple near where the mosque is now located caught fire and no one could put it out. When asked why he didn't save the building, the emperor Akbar is reported to have replied, "If I saved all other temples but this one, I would be doing injustice to my religion."
Built between 1571 and 1574, this monumental structure dominated the Indian subcontinent for more than three centuries. It was finally destroyed by the British army in 1803 during the invasion of India led by Lord Nelson.
The site of the former mosque is now occupied by an educational institution called Aligarh Muslim University (AMU).
The construction of forts and tombs bore a remarkable similarity to Islamic architecture under the patronage of the Mughal rulers. The Persian and Indian styles were cleverly combined to produce works of high quality and accuracy. This article focuses on only two types of Mughal buildings: forts and tombs.
Forts were large fortified settlements built by various kingdoms and empires to protect their territories. They could be single towers or complexes with several buildings arranged around an open area. The Mughals inherited this tradition and continued to build forts to protect their own territory. Some examples include Rohtas Fort in Bihar and Jantar Mantar in Jaipur.
Tombs are structures used as burial places. They could be natural caves, man-made structures, or combinations of both. The word "museum" comes from the Turkish word muzey, which means "place for storing and preserving objects of cultural or artistic value". The first museum was built in Istanbul in 1804. It was called the "Museum of Natural History", but today it is known as the "Istanbul Museum".
The earliest archaeological evidence of tombs in India dates back to the early years of the 1st millennium AD. But the construction of new forts and tomb complexes became popular only after 1650.
This quadrangle's design combines local brick building traditions with modifications from the imperial style seen in Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. This quadrangle's iwans reflect the pinnacle of Akbari architecture in the region that is now Pakistan. The names of God (Allah) are inscribed in Arabic on the four corners of the fort.
The interior of the fort consists of large open spaces surrounded by walls with many rooms and passages leading to them. The entire layout is such that it's easy to defend every corner of the fortress. The defense system includes wide gates, defensive towers, barbicans (little fortified houses attached to a gate or entrance for protection against ambush), and ditches (moats) around the outside perimeter of the fort.
The construction of the fort began in 1592 under the leadership of Mir Lakhpat Khan I, the son of Shah Jahan's eldest daughter. It was completed in 1645 after 14 years work. The fort covers about 35 acres and has eight main entrances/gates. Its walls are over 20 feet high and include more than 10,000 bricks that weigh almost two million pounds!
Inside the fort are three mosques, a tomb shrine, a prison, a chamber of horrors, and other structures that date back as early as 1592. There are also several shops where you can buy handicraft items dating back to the Mughal era.