The magnificent temples that the Greeks erected for their gods are the principal examples of Greek architecture that exist today. The Greeks constructed the majority of their temples and administrative structures in three styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The sorts of columns they employed reflected these styles (also known as "orders"). Although the Romans adopted many architectural elements from Greece (such as the arch), they built most of their own architecture during their early years. After 146 BC, when Greece was divided up among several nations, the only part of Greece that maintained a high degree of independence was Athens. It was here that modern Greek culture was born.
Even after the fall of the Athenian Empire in 146 BC, Athens remained important culturally. And it was here that the first universities were founded - the Academy by Plato in 384 BC and the Lyceum by Aristotle four years later. Both schools focused on education rather than research but they laid the foundations for future universities.
In fact, universities had become popular again after the decline following Rome's defeat in 192 BC of the last king of Rome, who had established them as an institution. The Greeks used them to teach rhetoric, grammar, philosophy, and mathematics. But they also used them to train officials such as lawyers, politicians, and teachers. Universities played an important role in the development of Europe and America.
The word "order" also can mean a line of dancers in a procession; in this case, it refers to a series of steps.
Doric order was used primarily for religious buildings and included only two types of column: the monolith and the triglyph. The monolith has no base but is supported by a single shaft that rises from beneath its apex. The triglyph has a base made up of three equal-sized blocks set into the ground. Each column in the Doric order is about half as tall as it is wide.
Ionic order was used for secular buildings and included eight types of column: the diametrion, the tetrastyle, the triastyle, the hypostyle, the scaloid, the caryatid, the abacus, and the pteron. The diametral column has a square shaft with a diameter equivalent to one-half that of the column itself. It has no base except for a small ring at its bottom which fits over the neck of the jar it stood upon. The tetrastyle column has four equal branches rising from its base to its capital.
Ancient Greek architecture grew into three separate orders during its early ascent in the Classical period: the Doric, the Ionic, and the Corinthian. Each of these orders was distinguished by distinctive elements in its columns, which were used in formal, public structures like as stadiums and theaters. The Doric order was most common in southern Greece while the Ionic style was popular in Athens. The Corinthian order was developed in Corinth but is also found in other parts of Greece and on islands like Delos.
During the Hellenistic period, the influence of Rome began to appear in Greek architecture. The Romans adopted many features from the Greeks, including their idea of order. However, they also introduced some new ideas that would later become important factors in determining the look of modern buildings. For example, they divided up their buildings into rooms with doors and windows, a concept the ancients had only used for ceremonial entrances without walls or gates. The Romans also required certain amenities in buildings, such as bathrooms and running water, which the ancients had never needed before.
The Romans also wanted uniformity in their buildings, which led to a few different styles arising over time. There was the Tuscan style, which had columns with square capitals attached to a wall with a flat roof. Then there was the Ionic style, which was similar to the Ionic order found in Ancient Greek temples but with columns with elliptical instead of square capitals.
The Doric order Classical architecture: Ancient Greek architecture Architectural trends in Athens during the 5th century BC 399-386 BC. The most famous example of Doric architecture is the Parthenon, built at the request of Athena, who wanted a temple to house her statue. It was completed in 438 BC by Phidias, one of the early masters of sculpture.
The Erechtheion was also built by Pericles, but it used Roman materials and architects. The Romans borrowed much from the Greeks, including many architectural styles. For example, they borrowed the Erechtheion's idea of having only one entrance fronting on the sacred way and turned it into their own Pantheon with rooms added for various gods.
The Temple of Zeus was probably designed by Myron and built around 450 BC. It was originally painted white, but now is mostly black because it was used as a stable for several centuries after it was abandoned. The Temple of Zeus is unique among ancient Greek temples because it was not dedicated to a single god but to Zeus himself. It is said that no other temple was ever re-used after construction.
Myron was a prominent sculptor in his time.