Once upon a time, the Eiffel Tower was yellow. It was painted yellow a decade later. Prior to the adoption of the present, specifically blended "Eiffel Tower Brown" in 1968, the tower was also yellow-brown and chestnut brown. The tower has been variously described as looking like "a giant matchstick or an old piano keyboard" or like a "stainless steel wig."
Today, the Eiffel Tower is blue-black. The color comes from polyurethane which covers almost all of its surface. The paint job was done to replace colors that were beginning to fade due to sunlight exposure. It is estimated that the tower will require maintenance for approximately one new color per year for the rest of its life.
There are several elements to the Eiffel Tower's design that contribute to its color changing over time. The first factor is the type of material used to construct it. The Eiffel Tower is made of iron and wood, materials that grow darker with age. The second factor is the type of paint used on it. Today, artists use a special mixture of polyurethane products designed to change color over time. This color variation helps preserve the appearance of the tower for longer than it would if it were painted flat black.
You may have seen photos or videos of objects that appear black but are actually colored gray.
The Eiffel Tower was reddish-brown when it first debuted in 1889. To enhance the structure's silhouette against the canvas of the Parisian sky, the tower is painted in three colours that get brighter with height. The bottom half is red, the middle section is yellow and the top third is white.
In 1919, during World War I, German artillery targeted the tower for demolition because they believed it was an enemy weapon. All that remained after the battle was a 150-foot-high pedestal surrounded by radio antennas. In 1973, the European Community decided to restore the tower rather than destroy it as well-known landmark. They hired a French company to repair the damage from the gunpowder and help rebuild its stature as France's favorite monument.
The Eiffel Tower remains one of Paris' most familiar landmarks and helps make the city world-famous. It has been described as "the tallest building in Europe," although this distinction also belongs to another structure located in Strasbourg City, France.
The design of the Eiffel Tower was revolutionary at the time it was built. Its designer, Gustave Eiffel, used steel girders instead of stone or brick for the supporting framework and attached iron rods to these girders to create a skeleton frame. The Tower was made out of cast iron and glass, which were advanced materials for its time.
The "Iron Lady" has modified her appearance throughout the years by using a variety of paint colors. In 1919, it was given its current white coloration.
The Eiffel Tower is one of the most recognizable structures in the world. She has been the object of many paintings and photographs. The tower has also appeared in several movies, including the 1952 film Les Diaboliques starring Simone Signoret. The latest adaptation of the Twilight series took place in 2013 during the shooting of two parts out of four episodes. The movie featured a scene where the characters go to Paris for a wedding. They walk under the Eiffel Tower at night while singing La Vie En Rose (Life Is Beautiful).
The Eiffel Tower is still going strong after 120 years. She continues to attract millions of visitors each year who are amazed by her beauty.
However, the Iron Lady does not stand alone. She is joined by three other smaller iron sculptures called "the Trocadéro figures". These statues were created by French sculptor Antoine-Louis Barye and put up in 1884 to honor the winners of the Universal Exposition. Each figure stands about 1.5 meters tall and sits atop a small pedestal.
Its hue has changed throughout time, from reddish-brown (1889) to ochre-brown (1892), a variety of five shades of yellow across its whole height (1899), yellow-brown (1907 to 1947), reddish-brown (1954-1961), and, since 1968, a "Eiffel Tower brown" of three different tones. A fresh painting campaign will commence in 2019!
In fact, because of its exposure to sunlight, the Eiffel Tower is always changing color. The tower itself is made of iron and concrete, which are both strong materials that can stand on their own but also allow for some flexibility in coloring. Concrete is used for the base of the tower as well as the interior, while iron is used for the frame surrounding the cylinder.
Concrete continues to get darker over time due to the presence of iron oxide in its composition. This color change is not visible to the naked eye but can be detected by scientists using spectroscopy tools. Over time, the color of the Eiffel Tower has varied from red to brown to yellow.
In 1889, the year it was built, the Eiffel Tower was painted red. At this time, the tower was supposed to be illuminated at night but this feature was never implemented. In 1892, the tower was painted brown instead. This was done because people were complaining about how it looked during nighttime hours. No one seems to know why the tower was colored in various pastels of yellow between 1897 and 1907.
The tower was made of wrought iron, which must be protected from corrosion due to exposure to the weather. Since 1968, the hue of choice has been a very neutral shade of brown comprised of three tones of brown (called "Eiffel Tower brown"). Prior to this time, the tower was painted white.
In addition to protecting the iron structure from corrosion, the color of the tower also serves as a beacon for mariners and provides contrast for landing planes at night.
The tower is approximately 140 meters (460 ft) high with an additional 30 meters (100 ft) of antenna. The average weight of a visitor is 10 kg (22 lb).
It is estimated that it will take about 5 million man hours to build the first phase of the project. The foundation stone was laid by President FranÃ§ois Mitterand on May 24, 1887, and the tower was opened to the public on July 14, 1889.
During World War II, the Germans used the tower for target practice. After the war, they removed many of the guns they had installed here and elsewhere in France. Today, only one gun remains inside the tower: a 20 mm cannon that faces in the direction of England.
An electric light has been mounted on the top of the tower since 1899, when the original system failed.