Between 956 AD and 1323 AD, three earthquakes severely destroyed the lighthouse, and it became an abandoned ruin. Egypt's Ministry of State for Antiquities announced plans in 2016 to transform the submerged ruins of ancient Alexandria, including the Pharos, into an underwater museum. The project is expected to cost up to $50 million and take five years to complete.
The Pharos was one of the most important buildings in ancient Alexandria. It was a giant mirror made of bronze which could reflect sunlight more than 100 miles (160 km) out to sea. The building was originally constructed in 280 BC and took ten years to build. Alexander the Great ordered the construction of the Pharos as a gift for his father, Philip II of Macedon. When he died, he was preparing to move his empire forward with many new ideas. His death left a power struggle between his generals. At the time, Athens had just won her war against Macedonia so they wanted another enemy. They got them when Alexander's generals started fighting each other for power after his death. In the end, Ptolemy III Euergetes won out and continued Alexander's projects.
The Pharos was used to signal ships at night with fireballs caused by burning fat or wood from the Nile River. This would guide them home to Alexandria because there were no street lights back then. The Pharos also had a machine called a horologion that measured solar eclipses.
The lighthouse eventually outlasted the Greek and Roman civilizations. After centuries of keeping seafarers safe, the Alexandria lighthouse was eventually destroyed by an earthquake about 1375 A.D. Some of its blocks were stolen and used to construct a fortress for Egypt's Sultan, while others fell into the sea. Today, not a single piece of the old lighthouse remains.
The story of the Alexandria lighthouse is told in some detail in a book called "Lighthouses: Their History and Art" by Robert W. Harwood. This book describes how the Alexandrian lighthouse program began with a stone tower built in 27 B.C. by Caesar Augustus. The Roman emperor probably received this gift from one of his allies, the Ptolemies of Egypt, in exchange for helping the Egyptians defeat their rival kingdom of Pergamum. Within decades, however, the Romans abandoned their efforts to build more lighthouses because they didn't want to waste money on something that would be useless after they left Egypt.
After the fall of Rome, the lighthouse program continued under the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Turks. In 1669, the last remaining Byzantine lighthouse was destroyed when the city of Constantinople was captured by the Turks. In 1716, the last Turkish lighthouse was also destroyed, this time by an earthquake.
By then, European nations had already begun building lighthouses as a means of promoting trade.
An Overview of Alexandria's Pharos (Lighthouse). It was a technological accomplishment that has served as the model for all lighthouses thereafter. Built by Sostratus of Cnidus, perhaps for Ptolemy I Soter, it was completed in 280 BCE under the reign of Soter's son, Ptolemy II of Egypt. The lighthouse was so innovative that scholars believe it may have been inspired by Apollo's temple at Delphi. The Pharos was composed of three tiers of stone mirrors set into a wooden framework with limestone walls over 10 feet high. Each tier was about 30 feet wide and 60 feet long. The first two tiers were flat, while the third one had a curved bottom to reflect sunlight farther up into the sky.
The Pharos was destroyed by fire in about 240 B.C. However, its design was so effective that it only took four years to build another version of it. This new Pharos was also burned down in about 240 B.C., but it was immediately after this second destruction that the Romans arrived in Egypt and began their gradual takeover of the country. Thus, it can be inferred that both versions of the Pharos existed at the same time.
In addition to being a technological achievement, the Pharos was also an act of imperial propaganda. Its main purpose was to let people know that Alexandria was now able to protect itself from invaders.
For hundreds of years, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as the Pharos Lighthouse, was one of the world's highest monuments. French archaeologists discovered its ruins on the seabed of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour in 1994. They now estimate that the lighthouse was at least 30 meters high with an additional 10 meters for its antenna.
The lighthouse was built in the first century A.D. by Alexander the Great as a gift for his mother, Olympias. It was made of limestone and marble, and it used oil lamps until A.D. 535 when a fire destroyed most of the city. After this incident, the lighthouse switched to using candles.
Alexander the Great wanted to be able-bodied when he grew up, so he trained during his teenage years to operate the massive machinery needed to construct such a large structure. The equipment he learned on was said to be the best of its time, and the lighthouse remained highly functional for many more centuries after it was built. Today, only the base remains of the original lighthouse, which is visible from far away due to its location on a small island within the harbour.
The discovery of the Pharos Lighthouse has helped scientists learn more about life in ancient Greece. In addition, this project has shown that modern technologies can be applied successfully to old buildings in order to conserve them for future generations.
A Tribute The Lighthouse of Alexandria was designated as the Seventh Wonder of the Ancient World. It was one of the longest-standing wonders due to the exceptional quality of its architectural design. Following the earthquakes that destroyed the lighthouse, most of the stone was utilized to construct a fortification in the same location. Today, only the foundation remains.
The word "wonder" comes from the Latin word mirabilis, which means "marvelous." In the ancient world, people compared many things to lighthouses to indicate their status and importance. For example, the Great Pyramid at Giza was originally crowned with a lantern tower that displayed a light source made from oil lamps. However, this wasn't intended as a permanent viewing platform but rather as a ceremonial way for pharaohs to announce important events such as wars or peace treaties with other countries.
Lighthouses were also regarded as magical structures because they served to warn sailors away from dangerous coasts. They also played an essential role in trade by providing signals for ships to position themselves for safe arrival at port. Finally, lighthouses were associated with gods because they often stood on isolated islands or promontories. Gods would protect those who honored them by constructing their own shrines on these sites.
In conclusion, a lighthouse is a wonderful miracle because it protects travelers from danger at sea while giving them knowledge about the direction home.