Architecture in the Philippines Filipino architecture is an intriguing offspring of several influences, both domestic and international. Prior to contemporary architecture in the Philippines, there was a combination of American and Spanish colonial architecture in the Philippines, which led in the rich architectural achievements that exist today.
Filipino architects have been influenced by many different cultures throughout its history, including Chinese, Indian, Islamic, European (especially French and Spanish styles), as well as other local cultures. This list does not include the important role played by Filipino builders and engineers who have designed and built much of the country's infrastructure.
The earliest evidence of human settlement in the Philippines dates back 10,000 years ago. At first, these settlers lived as nomads in small groups, hunting and gathering food until they found a stable home base. It wasn't until about 300 AD that the first villages appeared. These early settlements were made up of just a few huts or tents where families lived together. By 600 AD, most of the islands were occupied by large communities made up of many different families living separately but working together for common goals. These early settlements had no writing, so records of this time are very limited.
During Spanish rule from 1565 to 1898, the Philippines became one of the most advanced countries in Asia with a complex civilization of its own. After independence in 1946, development continued at a rapid pace under many different governments.
The way a structure adapts to the country's tropical environment may also contribute to it being "Filipino." Modernizing the vernacular Foreign influence on architecture continues to make its mark in many nations, including the Philippines. The country has long been influenced by American and European styles, but more recently, local architects have begun to create their own unique designs.
The Filipino people have also played an important role in the evolution of their architecture. Over the years, they have used their creativity to develop new materials and techniques that allow for better adaptation of buildings to the tropics. These innovations have helped make the Philippine construction industry one of the most progressive in Asia.
In conclusion, what makes a building in the Philippines Filipino is its ability to adapt itself to its environment while maintaining a sense of style and culture.
Filipino colonial architecture may still be seen in centuries-old structures throughout the country, including Filipino baroque churches, Bahay na Bato, residences, schools, convents, and government buildings. The greatest collections of Spanish colonial era architecture may be seen in Manila's walled city of Intramuros and Vigan's ancient town. Other important centers of colonial architecture include Cebu, Iloilo, Lipa, Naga, Olongapo, Parañaque, San Fernando, Santa Rosa, Tarlac, and Virgen del Carmen (Burgos).
Colonial architecture in the Philippines dates back to 1565, when Ferdinand Magellan landed in what is now Malabon City and initiated the first European contact with the islands. In 1763, during the reign of Charles III, Spain issued a decree building castles, churches, and other public works to impress foreign visitors and native allies. The design style at that time was called "Filipino" rather than "Spanish". After the Philippine Revolution of 1872, Spain ceded the archipelago to the United States under the Treaty of Paris. American architects were hired to redesign many old Spanish buildings in the capital city of Manila. These new buildings were used as offices by the Americans who controlled the city after its capture from Spain in May 1898 during the Spanish-American War. When the Americans withdrew their military forces from the country in 1946, they left behind many concrete buildings which have deteriorated badly over time.
Palawan's rock shelters and caves include the earliest evidence of pre-colonial construction in the Philippines. Because early Filipinos were nomadic because they were continually on the lookout for sustenance through hunting or fishing, they depended heavily on nature for shelter and did not need to build permanent homes. However, as the population grew more stable, so did their needs. They began to require shelter from rain and wind beyond what natural objects provided so they started using materials that they could find on their land near where they lived.
The first structures built by Filipinos were probably simple shelters for hunters living in caves or under overhangs in the jungle. These early settlers would have used any available material that would keep out the elements: bamboo, leaves, sticks, etc. As time went on, these settlers would have needed places to store food, trap animals, and protect their crops. So they would have needed buildings like those found in Palawan today. There are two types of rock shelters in Palawan used by hunters nearly 3000 years ago: horizontal ones, which are open to the sky; and vertical ones, which are enclosed by walls made of large stones laid one on top of another.
These ancient structures had no nails or screws in their construction, just powerful muscles and a lot of hard work. The roofs were made of palm trees or vegetation attached to the walls with tendons or vines.
With the Filipinoization of architecture, a new kind of Philippine architecture arose by the 1970s. The Filipino style influenced the revival of traditional themes; the bahay-kubo and the bahay na bato became popular forms to be reproduced and modified (Batasan Pambansa, BLISS Housing projects). However, most buildings were still made using Western materials and construction techniques.
The first architects to promote a "Filipino" style were Spanish immigrants who came to the Philippines before 1898. These men introduced Renaissance and Neoclassical styles into the country. But it was not until much later that these ideas found their way into modern architecture. One of the first architects to advocate for the use of local materials in building structures that have a distinctive Filipino appearance is Leandro V. Locsin. He published articles on this topic in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Other advocates include Pablo Antonio, who designed several churches with neo-Gothic features, and Arturo Briceño, who was responsible for designing many schools in the Bahay Kubo style.
After World War II, architectural training programs began to appear throughout the country. However, they were all based in Europe or North America and used their knowledge of modern design concepts to reproduce colonial-era buildings in the Philippines. It wasn't until the mid-1970s that local architects started to develop their own style which incorporated Filipino values into its design.
He was regarded by some as the finest Filipino modernist architect of his day, and he was a pioneer of contemporary Philippine architecture... Antonio Pablo
|Pablo S. Antonio, Sr.|
|Spouse(s)||Marina del Rosario Reyes|
|Children||Pablo R. Antonio Jr.|
|Awards||Order of National Artists of the Philippines|