The Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, and Italianate styles were the most popular in the mid-nineteenth century. The Greek Revival style (1820–1860) is unquestionably a part of this time, but because it is based on the Early Classical Revival style, it is also featured in the Early Federal Period. The Italianate style (1850s) evolved from the Picturesque movement in Europe, so it makes sense that it would become popular after its introduction to America in the early nineteenth century.
The Greek Revival style was very popular with newly rich Americans who wanted to reflect their status by building large houses with white paint and red brick or stone. There were two main architects who developed this style: Benjamin Henry Latrobe and William Thornton. They are considered the founders of the American Neoclassical architecture.
The Italianate style was used extensively for town homes in Chicago at the end of the 1850s. These buildings have three floors with a hip roof and narrow windows arranged in panels under flat ceilings. The term "Italianate" was first used by Charles Eliot Norton in 1858 to describe some new buildings he saw in Boston. He wrote that they had been built in an "attempt to imitate some of the more beautiful examples of the Italian architecture."
There were many other styles that were popular during the mid-nineteenth century. For example, the Gothic Revival style was used to build churches after the American Revolution when church attendance rose dramatically.
The nineteenth century is notable for its rapid succession of historical revival styles, such as the Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, and Queen Anne Style (also known as the Aesthetic Movement), as well as for introducing several significant architectural publications and new building forms. During this time, the use of iron and steel structures became more common, which resulted in a new class of buildings: skyscrapers.
The industrial revolution brought with it many technological advances that had a profound impact on society at large and the design profession in particular. The construction of canals, roads, and railroads required innovative solutions from architects who were often also engineers. One important development was the introduction of machine tools that allowed manufacturers to produce standardized parts that could be assembled into complete products with high accuracy and quality. This led to the concept of the factory system, where components are made in bulk and then assembled into final products in another location. Traveling salesmen called engravers would then come up with designs for new products that would appeal to consumers who wanted better ways to heat their homes or eat food hot or cold. These designs would be turned into metal plates using one of the newly developed lithographic printing processes and then printed onto fabrics used by garment makers.
Another advancement was the use of concrete as a building material. Concrete has many advantages over other materials used in building projects including being easy to work with and inexpensive.
A sequence of Gothic revivals began in the mid-18th century in England, expanded throughout 19th-century Europe, and lasted into the twentieth century, mostly for churches and academic buildings. The term "Gothic" is used for a wide variety of styles with common features derived from medieval European architecture.
The first known use of the word "gothic" to describe a new style of building was by the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in 1770. He wrote: "Modern Gothic has arrived; it will not do to say that Gothic is gone." Two years later the English architect Robert Adam published an article in the Edinburgh Review claiming that modern architecture was lacking in imagination and had become "a set of useless decorations". In this same article he proposed an "Architecture of Beauty and Simplicity" which was based on Gothic models.
So the term "Gothic Revival" is appropriate because it recalls the mood of the time when many people were interested in everything medieval.
However, the style did not really revive anything from the Middle Ages but rather it created something new by combining elements from several different sources including ancient Greece, Rome, and Egypt. Also important are the Arab world through Spain and France and India through its temples.
The Gothic architectural and artistic style developed in the Middle Ages and was popular in Europe between the mid-12th and 16th centuries. The Gothic style evolved from the Romanesque, which was distinguished by its many arches, vaulted ceilings, and smaller stained glass windows. The Gothic style became increasingly refined over time, culminating in the Renaissance and Baroque styles.
The main characteristics of Gothic architecture are its tall spires, slender pillars, and large doorways. It is also known for its intricate carvings and colorful stained glass windows. Churches built during this time period are still considered to be landmarks today; examples can be seen throughout Europe and North America.
Gothic architecture was invented by French and English monks who were interested in creating buildings that would stand up against the strong winds that swept through their country. They used thin stone walls and pointed arches as a way to make their buildings look more impressive. Soon other architects began copying these ideas and within a few decades, the Gothic style was widely used across Europe.
In addition to being interesting architecture, Gothic churches were also useful because they had large spaces where people could gather together inside them. During the Middle Ages, most people lived in farms or villas and didn't have access to public transportation so they needed places to go every day to work or to visit friends. These places included royal courts, monasteries, and churches.
Early Christian, Byzantine, Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassical, and different Revival styles of the late 18th to early 20th century, and eventually Modern, are the progressive styles of Europe's great church structures. Although Gothic architecture is usually associated with churches, many other buildings including schools, libraries, and museums were also built in this style.
By far the most common type of early Christian building was the basilica, which was used for religious ceremonies as well as housing a priestly staff. The earliest known basilicas date from about 300 AD but they were soon followed by similar buildings using the term "basilica" as a label. These later basilicas were often much larger than the original one with an average floor space of about 40 feet by 20 feet. They were usually made of wood and sometimes had stone facings. There were several types of basilicas including those used as cathedrals for large cities like Rome or Constantinople, monasteries for groups of monks, and private houses for individuals.
The next most common type of early Christian building was the nave-and-aisle church, which was used for worship services and also served as a place of refuge during times of persecution. These buildings did not have dedicated priests' quarters like basilicas but instead had bishops who held court in an area called the episcopal palace.
The residences in the Colonial Revival style originate from the late 1800s. The early immigrants of this era established America's legacy by building several forms of Colonial dwellings. As a result, the architecture of colonial mansions was a mash-up of numerous elements, the majority of which were in the Georgian style. But also included are Greek and Roman temples, Indian shivasthuws, Arabic fakhsahs, and Chinese palaces.
During this time period, American architects began to use history as a guide for future development. They studied ancient buildings around the world and incorporated their most effective design features into their own homes. These architects also wanted to create a sense of harmony between inside and out, so they designed their homes with similar materials for ease of maintenance and decoration. Finally, they sought to imitate nature as much as possible, so they used bright colors and simple lines on their houses.
Colonial Revival style houses first appeared on the east coast, but soon spread to other parts of the country as well. Today, these properties are popular with first time home buyers who want a house that has a strong traditional theme without being too old-fashioned.
The term "colonial revival" was first used by Edward D. Dickinson in an article published in House Beautiful in 1931. He described these houses as "a new departure in American house building, inspired by European examples but adapted to our own needs."