Funerary architecture is created by cultures that have a materialistic believe in the afterlife and by individuals who seek to preserve and signify their temporal value. Monumental graves were built in ancient Egypt (pyramids), Hellenistic Greece the tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus, which is the source of...
...the term "mausoleum", and Rome (the Ara Pacis). Modern equivalents include the pyramid-shaped mausoleums of South Korea or the Kremlin's Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The word "mausoleum" comes from the Greek μαϋλοζωστής, meaning "glazed monument".
In India, people build pyramidal structures called pagodas to commemorate their loved ones. These are the ancillary units of a temple complex.
In Indonesia, people build pyramidal structures called genies for religious purposes. These are found in particular in East Java where they are known as desa genie. A desa genie is usually placed outside a house as an attraction to bring good luck to its occupants.
In Mexico, people build pyramidal structures called teocallis to honor deceased ancestors. These are main temples of a pulque ball court complex.
In Peru, people build pyramidal structures called chuwitsawans to honor deceased ancestors.
Architecture, unlike other creative and artistic professions, must constantly represent the era and cultural environment in which it was created. Architecture, in addition to providing shelter, serves as a stage and framework for our existence. It influences the way we live by defining space and function; it affects the way we think by requiring us to plan ahead and consider the future; it reflects society's values by portraying what is considered beautiful or not; it provides information about history through preserved structures.
All of this makes architecture unique.
"Architecture is the scientific art of making buildings express ideas." —Dictionary of Architecture and Construction "Architecture is the scientific art of making structures express ideas." Architecture is the triumph of human creativity over resources, methods, and men to give man ownership of his own planet. It is also the science of building materials, design, and planning: the ability to envision and realize a structure that will meet our needs while being attractive to others.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, architecture is "the art or practice of designing buildings," and "building architecture" is its modern definition. The OED notes that these definitions overlap with those of engineering and town planning, but they add that architecture is not limited to engineers or planners because it includes artists and designers too. It is this last point—that architecture is not just technical construction but also involves artistic expression—that differentiates it from engineering.
In short, architecture is the design and construction of buildings, which are constructed according to certain plans (or designs) for the purpose of providing shelter for people or animals, storing goods, etc. . Designing and constructing buildings is called architectural work. All types of buildings can be designed and built using architectural techniques, but only some types of buildings require an understanding of architecture. For example, an architect would be needed to design a house, while a civil engineer would be needed to design a bridge.
Architecture is divided into four main elements in the book: the hearth, the roof, the enclosure, and the mound. Each element's beginnings may be discovered in the traditional crafts of ancient "barbarians": hearth-metallurgy and pottery. Roofing materials include wood, clay, and bone.
The hewn log or stone that forms the basis for a building's framework is called its skeleton. The remaining material around the skeleton provides protection for people who live inside the building and creates more room inside by making use of insulation and air circulation systems. This part of the building is called its envelope. The final component is the mound of earth or rock that protects the skeleton from further destruction and provides some decorative effect. This is called the site conditioner.
Hearth-metallurgy involves the processing of metals to make them easier to work with tools such as axes and knives. Before the development of metal tools, stones were used instead. Pottery is made from clay. Both of these technologies have been used for many thousands of years by different cultures all over the world. They represent the first steps toward architecture as we know it today.
Roofs are the parts of a building that protect people living inside the structure from the elements. They can be as simple as sheets of wood or as complex as concrete structures with pipes and wires inside.
An architectural structure is a man-made building that is motivated by both aesthetic and engineering concerns. In many circumstances, such a structure might be considered "structural art." As a result, structural components were often oversized, and vast quantities of material were employed. The use of steel in architecture began in the mid-19th century with the introduction of the iron arch bridge, which required considerably more material than traditional stone or timber bridges.
Architecture has had a significant impact on society over time, primarily due to its ability to enhance the beauty of a city and provide comfortable living conditions. It also plays an important role in defining the character of a community. Buildings serve as landmarks, reflect the culture of a region, and can be used to teach history and anthropology.
There are an enormous number of different types of structures, ranging from small houses to large stadiums. This page focuses on those structures that are considered buildings, meaning they are used for housing or storage. There are several other categories of structures that are not discussed here, including monuments, bridges, and tunnels.
A building is defined as a structure intended to house a specific activity or group of individuals. These activities include work, recreation, and education. All buildings require three basic elements: a roof, walls, and a floor. A building may have one or more roofs, but only one floor and wall system is needed to create a structure.
Achaemenid architecture encompasses all of the Achaemenid Persians' architectural achievements, manifested in the construction of spectacular cities used for governance and inhabitation (Persepolis, Susa, Ecbatana), temples built for worship and social gatherings (such as Zoroastrian temples), and mausoleums erected in honor of the departed. The Achaemenids were the first rulers to have their own distinct style of architecture which could be recognized from a distance after the death of Cyrus the Great in 530 B.C.
They built their capital at Persepolis, about 80 miles south of Tehran, where they held court and administered their empire. The city was constructed over an area of roughly 10 square miles with walls that were once 30 feet high and 6 miles long. It included palaces, temples, public buildings, and gardens. Inscriptions on stones found near the site attribute the building of certain parts of the city to different members of the Achaemenid family who ruled during the 2,500 year lifespan of the empire.
In addition to constructing cities, the Achaemenids also renovated or replaced existing buildings with new structures. For example, they converted the palace of the Medes into what is now known as the Palace of Cyrus the Great in 522 B.C. This renovation involved adding rooms, bathrooms, and courtyards to the original building.
Finally, the Achaemenids are credited with introducing new technologies and ideas from other cultures into their own society.