Mughal architecture is distinguished by bulbous domes, slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, enormous halls, huge arched doorways, and exquisite decoration. The Mughals were great builders who used locally available materials for their construction projects. As a result, Mughal buildings do not look like those built today using concrete or steel beams - although they were often used under the walls or in place of them when money was no object.
The basic structure of a Mughal building was the dome. The dome would be covered with plaster or mortar and then painted white to reflect sunlight and heat inside the building. Sometimes the dome would be pierced with windows or even have an opening cut into it from top to bottom - this is called a "skylight".
Domes were originally used by ancient Assyrians as shelter from the sun and rain. They were also used by Egyptians and Greeks as well. The Mughals probably saw examples of Assyrian and Greek domed buildings while traveling through Asia Minor (present-day Turkey).
As far as we know, the first dome built in India was by King Ashoka in 270 B.C. It was a stone dome, which suggests that wooden domes were already being used in India at the time.
The Mughal palaces varied in layout, but they share some architectural elements, such as balconies supported by carved brackets, pillared kiosks capped by domes, arcades of sunk arches, foliated arches, latticed screens, curved Bengal roofs, and flat domes rising...
The most important feature that makes Mughal architecture unique is its use of white marble for building structures. The Mughals acquired knowledge of this stone from Indians and passed it on to them. Before the Mughals, Indian builders used red sandstone for their structures.
Another distinctive feature of Mughal architecture is its abundance of windows. In fact, during the Mughal era, India had no other type of window except for the huge opening in the form of a gate or a door. For example, the Lahore Fort has more than 7,000 windows of various sizes. They provide light not only inside the fort but also outside when the gates are opened.
Last but not the least, Mughal architecture is famous for its detail work. There are many beautiful sculptures, paintings, and calligraphy on the walls and ceilings of Mughal buildings. These elements make Mughal architecture unique and interesting to study.
Mughal architecture combines Indian, Persian, and Islamic elements. Large bulbous onion domes, frequently flanked by four smaller domes, are prominent elements of many structures. White marble and red sandstone are used. Windows are usually framed with wooden beams carved into the shape of a lotus leaf or floral patterns.
In addition to buildings, the Mughals are also known for their gardens. The most famous example is the Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, which is surrounded by an empty moat because it was designed by the great German architect Michael Angelo Adanson. Today, it is one of India's most visited tourist attractions.
Finally, Mughal art includes ceramics, painting, and sculpture. Many artists working for the court were European as well as Indian.
The Mughals ruled large parts of Asia for nearly three hundred years (1556-1858) so they have had an enormous influence on the development of countries like India and Pakistan.
Mughal style architecture Islamic style architecture
The fort was built between 1638 and 1665 under the orders of Shah Jahan, who wanted to build a great city at this site. It has been described as "the most ambitious construction project ever attempted by one monarch." The original design included a wide array of buildings in stone, marble, and wood, but only the fort itself has been completed in its present form. The emperor's palace was to be made of gold, but it remains just a plan.
The walls of the fort are over seven kilometers long and up to twenty-five feet high and enclose an area of more than two hundred and fifty acres. There are more than a thousand rooms inside the walls of the fort.
The capital was supposed to have been called "Agram" but after his death it was renamed "Lahore". However, the old name still goes by for the surrounding city district. Today, Agra is a major industrial center and home to many factories producing textiles, leather goods, and furniture.
Akbar's Tomb, a major tourist attraction in Agra, reflects the hallmark style of Mughal construction, consisting of sandstone and marble with geometric designs and inlay work. The edifice has three-story minarets and a combination of Hindu, Islamic, Jain, Christian, and Buddhist architectural traditions. It was built between 1583 and 1666.
The Jama Masjid in Delhi was constructed by Shah Jahan in memory of his wife. It stands for more than just a mosque - it is an expression of religious unity over which the emperor presided. The mosque remains one of the largest in the world today. It is made of white marble with black stone in its interior. The building also includes several other halls used for various purposes including a hall for prayers.
Asoka Pillars are two sets of ancient Indian pillars that were erected around 250 B.C. They are now located in the British Museum in London. The pillars are made of sandstone and are decorated with images of Asokan reliefs showing various deities and events from the Hindu epic Ramayana.
The Taj Mahal was built by Emperor Jahangir between 1616 and 1622 as his tomb. It is regarded as one of the greatest works of love and architecture of all time. The pure white marble monument with its four beautiful arches was designed to be visible from anywhere within twenty-five miles. The structure was built using slave labor.