Rondavel A rondavel is an African-style hut that is described in literature as a cone on a cylinder or a cone on a drum, but is commonly referred to as a rondavel (from the Afrikaans word rondawel). The conical shape of the huts allows for more interior space than a flat-roofed structure of equal size. The walls and the floor are made of mud bricks or daubed with a clay substance and painted red or black. The thatch roof is typically made of grass or reeds.
Ifuya A house with three levels: ground floor, first floor and second floor. The first and second floors are separated by a wall which contains small windows. There is usually a hole in the wall for smoke to escape. The ceiling is made of bamboo matting or thatched with maize straw.
Igugu A small house with no more than two rooms used by a single family. It has a thatched roof and can be built using only wood and clay.
Iloa A large house with many rooms for many people. It has a thatched roof and is built using wood and concrete.
Makuti A house with two rooms used by a single family.
Lesotho's traditional house type is known as a rondavel. A rondavel is a type of traditional African home. It is typically circular in shape and is traditionally produced with raw materials that may be sourced locally. The walls of a rondavel are frequently made of stones. Roofs are usually thatched with grass or metal sheets. The floor is usually made of wood planks.
In modern times, concrete blocks and tiles have become common replacements for stone. In rural areas, mud bricks are still used to build houses because they are easy to obtain and allow for adequate heat retention during cold seasons.
The design of a rondavel is such that it is light and spacious, allowing for large rooms inside the house. There is always a public area, which includes the entrance gate and the living room, while the kitchen and the bedroom are located on the other side of the house. Access to the bathroom can be obtained from either the public area or the bedroom.
People need space to move around and to get away from each other when necessary, which is why the rondavel design is very effective. It allows for privacy but also for interaction between members of the family.
There is no specific ritual associated with building a rondavel. Usually, the men of the family will gather together to decide what kind of house they want.
They do not have access to basic necessities such as clean water and power. Their dwellings are either round (rondavels) or rectangular in form. Their dwellings are generally composed of mud or concrete blocks, with a thatched roof made of grass or iron sheets. There is often only one door and one window per room.
Zulus traditionally lived in circular huts with thatched roofs. They still build their homes this way if they cannot afford a fence or wall around their property. But many now live in block-built houses with metal roofs instead. These new houses are usually located on large plots of land with plenty of space for everyone to enjoy.
In Zululand today, there are three main ethnic groups: Zulus, Xhosas and Afrikaners. Together, they make up about 95% of the population. The other 5% includes Europeans, Asians and others.
The majority of Zulus live in an area called KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. But some also live in Mozambique, Eswatini (formerly known as Swaziland), Zambia and Zimbabwe.
They are an agricultural people who grow maize, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, cotton, tea and tobacco. But because of the high cost of farming, most Zulus now prefer to work in towns and cities.