Iron, lead, and platinum are examples of dense materials. Styrofoam, glass, delicate woods like bamboo, and light metals like aluminum are examples of sparse materials. Sparse materials tend to be less dense than dense materials.
Dense materials are hard to cut and difficult to work with. Sparse materials are easy to cut and shape. Glass is a common example of a dense material that is also fragile. Bricks and ceramics are examples of sparser materials that can be used to make buildings or walls.
People use dense materials in tools because they need strength and hardness. They use sparse materials for their beauty. Flowers, wood, and hair are all examples of sparse materials that are popular for their aesthetics.
High density means the material has a lot of mass per volume. Dense materials such as iron have a high density while sparser materials like wood have a low density. High density means that you can pack a lot of material into a small space. Dense materials can be used to make heavy objects while lighter materials are needed to make objects that are thin and tall.
The term "high-density material" may also be called a "heavy material". A heavy material will always be dense while a dense material can be light or heavy depending on what it is made of.
Wood, glass, plastic, metals (copper, aluminum, silver, gold), steel, stainless steel, paper, rubber, leather, cotton, silk, sand, sugar, wool, nylon, polyester, water, dirt, and other materials are examples. Material is the substance from which objects are made. Objects are used to contain material, such as containers (cans, bottles), or to protect material from damage or contamination (plastic bags), or to provide a surface onto which to apply another material (painting). The word "material" is also used to describe the quality of something that makes it useful; for example, "a material advantage."
Material science is the study of properties of matter and its interaction with energy. Energy in the form of heat, light, electricity, or mechanical force is applied to material at a molecular level for various purposes such as heating or melting metal, changing state angles of molecules, or moving parts of machines. This induced change can be observed directly or measured indirectly. Science focuses on the composition and structure of materials with the aim of improving our understanding of why some materials are more useful than others.
All matter is composed of atoms, which are the smallest particles of element existence. An atom is a particle of an element that has lost or never gained any electrons. Atoms exist in two main forms: neutral and ionized.
The densest materials are:
Gold, silver, iron, aluminum, copper, and tin are examples of malleable materials. While not every object is malleable, the majority of metals are. Gold, for example, can be hammered into a more flexible state without breaking down at the atomic level.
Malleable materials can be shaped by hand or with tools. Silver has a lower melting point than gold and will sometimes be used to shape gold objects. Other metals, such as copper and zinc, are also useful for shaping gold because they will merge with the gold at their interface and become part of it.
Wood is another example of a malleable material. Wood is made up of fibers that are tied together with water molecules. When wood is cut it begins to dry out immediately because there is no way for moisture to get inside the fibers. This is why wood is often described as being "dry" when it is fresh off the tree. Over time wood does begin to lose its moisture content however, so over time it will become less reactive and easier to work with.
Stone is another example of a malleable material. Although most stones are rigid they can be worked with tools to make them more flexible or breakable.