Buildings are constructed using fire-resistant materials. Gypsum boards made with mineral wool Cement containing asbestos. Boards made of perlite. Corriboard, which is a composite material with glass fibers and resin systems.
Fireproof means that the material used to construct something is designed to not burn. This prevents smoke damage and toxic gases from spreading inside the building and also keeps people safe by preventing fires from starting in buildings.
Fireproofing is the process of making objects or structures less likely to catch fire. Fireproofing can be applied to any material that might burn, such as wood, paper, cloth, plastic, metal, and even people. The three main types of fire protection are fire walls, floor/ceiling assemblies, and roof assemblies.
Fire walls are permanent partitions that block the spread of fire from one room to another. They are built with fire-resistant materials on all sides except for one: the side adjacent to the burning substance. A fire wall cannot stop hot gases from escaping but it will prevent flames and smoke from entering an adjoining area. Fire walls should be installed by a professional architect or engineer who can determine how best to use their space. Fire walls can be created out of many different materials including ceramic tile, granite, marble, concrete, steel, and more.
To clad things for greater fire protection, proprietary boards and sheets composed of gypsum, calcium silicate, vermiculite, perlite, mechanically bonded composite boards formed of punched sheet-metal, and cellulose reinforced concrete have all been utilized. The most common material is a fiberglass mat with an epoxy resin system.
There are three basic types of fireproofing systems: continuous, discontinuous, and integral.
Continuous fireproofing systems use materials that cover the entire surface as in spray-on coatings or tape products. These products provide a high level of fire resistance without interfering with the assembly process or compromising other important properties such as aesthetics, sound transmission, etc. They also offer the greatest versatility in terms of design coloration. However, they can be difficult to apply and remove without damage to your structure. Spray-on fireproofing products are available for wood, metal, masonry, and composites.
Discontinuous fireproofing systems use materials that only cover part of the structure's surface like paint or plaster. They allow for easy customization of colors and designs while still providing a high level of fire resistance. Discontinuous fireproofing systems are commonly used on wood frame buildings because they're more affordable than metal-clad systems. However, they cannot be applied to all surfaces due to limitations within the building code.
Mineral fiber and other cementitious materials sprayed directly into the contours of beams, columns, girders, and floor/roof decks are the most often utilized fire prevention materials for structural steel. The application method can vary from simple spray-as-you-go jobs to fully integrated coatings systems. Cementitious materials have the advantage of providing a continuous, impenetrable barrier that prevents the flow of oxygen through the material itself. They also provide good protection against heat and flame during a fire.
The coating should be applied in several coats with an interval of 30 minutes between each coat to allow adequate time for drying. The final coat should be thick enough to produce a smooth finish but not so much as to be difficult to apply or cause sagging under its own weight.
Coating materials include portland cement, lime, slag, sand, glass fibers, and ceramic tiles. These materials are mixed with water to form a paste that is brushed onto the desired area or sprayed into the contours of steel structures. When dry, they form a hard, durable surface that protects steel from oxidation and corrosion damage due to exposure to moisture and soil acids. This type of fire protection system is commonly referred to as a "fireproofing" treatment.
The choice of material depends on factors such as cost, availability, and project requirements.