Castles were originally built of wood and lumber. They were later replaced with stone to make them stronger. Castles were frequently erected on the tops of hills or where natural characteristics of the terrain could be used to aid in defense.
Medieval castles usually consisted of an outer wall with an open area inside. The open area was called a "courtyard". The walls of the castle would have towers placed at regular intervals along them for protection. The interior of the castle would have had similar facilities to those outside: halls for meetings, dining rooms, armories, etc.
Europe's first permanent settlements were built by the Phoenicians, who traded vigorously across the entire region that would one day become Europe. They built their cities on islands that were easily defensible, such as the city of Carthage on the coast of what is now North Africa. When the Greeks came into contact with the Phoenicians, they too built their own cities, such as Athens. In the course of time, these cities grew to become large networks of trade routes and colonies.
The battle was necessary because it won him the throne of England.
Castles were not erected as often after the Middle Ages, owing to the development of heavier weaponry and cannon that could easily take down their walls. However, a number of castles still stand today that show that defense by castle is not dead.
If you want to protect against attack, the best place to do so is at a location where enemy forces can be seen -- this makes it easier to identify who needs defending against. For this reason, most castles were built on high points of land or adjacent to other features that would help defenders see approaching enemies. These might include other peaks, large boulders, deep valleys or forests. The advantage of this is that it gives soldiers knowledge of an enemy's position and movement, which can be used to plan a response or attack.
The English castle was primarily built by foreigners or their descendants. Early settlers from France brought with them the practice of building fortified homes known as chateaux, which later became the name given to castles in England.
During the 11th century, many of these French-built castles were taken over by British kings or barons who were loyal to them.
Wood Wood was used to build motte and bailey castles. Wooden castles were simple to build and repair, but they were vulnerable to attack and fire. Stone castles were more durable and did not decay like wood castles, but they were expensive and took a long time to create. Brick castles were in between the other two types: affordable and durable.
Motte and Bailey castles had an underground chamber called a "bailey" that was protected by a mound or "mote" above ground. The word "motte" comes from French meaning "small hill." Motte and bailey castles were often built on raised platforms or hills to make them easier to defend.
People worked together to build castles. A group of people might be hired to work on a particular project over several months while others would be paid to protect the site during this time. When the project was finished, another group might be hired to move into the castle.
England's Danelaw period began in 937 when the Vikings invaded and settled in England. They introduced new ideas about warfare into England, including using large armies made up of different countries' soldiers. The English government didn't like this kind of violence against their citizens so they decided to fight back by building bigger and better armies themselves.