MqrnS (Persian: mqrns), also known as Ahoopay (Persian: ahwpy) in Iranian architecture and Mocarabe in Iberian architecture, is a type of ornate vaulting in Islamic architecture. It is the quintessential form of Islamic architecture, and it is an essential part of the vernacular of Islamic structures. The word muqarna means "to bend or bow" in Arabic, but it can also be translated as "to curve" or "to wind." In structural terms, muqarnas are ribbed dome shapes whose ribs radiate out from the center of the structure like the petals of a flower.
Muqarnas were invented in Persia (now Iran) by Abu Ali Ibn Abdallah al-Shafih, who was born around 770 AD. The first documented use of this type of vault was over a mosque that he built in Isfahan for the Abbasid Caliphate. Although there are variations between examples, all generally follow the same basic plan. The roof is made up of several layers. The lowest layer is called the plating because it covers the entire floor. It is usually made of wood but sometimes of metal. Next comes the springing, which is either stone or brick. Above that is placed the crowning, which is often but not always flat, made of clay or terracotta. At its highest point, the crowning reaches the length of the room beneath it.
Muqarnas, a fundamental feature in Islamic architecture, is a three-dimensional element used in religious structures to decorate vaults, niches, porches, and domes. It provides support for heavy stone carvings and often serves as an aesthetic component of its own. The word comes from the Persian mukarnez, which means "capable of holding water", referring to the ancient practice of using carved muqarnas to decorate the ceilings of mosques and other religious buildings where they would hold up heavy hanging lamps.
In Islam, aesthetics play an important role in religion. Artistic creations such as paintings, sculptures, and even architecture can have spiritual value if done by hand with love and faith. Muqarnas are some of the most beautiful elements of Islamic art that serve as an aesthetic decoration rather than purely functional. They provide support for heavy stone carvings and often serve as an independent piece of artwork itself. The word comes from the Persian language and means "capable of holding water". This refers to the practice of using carved muqarnas to decorate sacred places like mosques and shrines where they would hold up heavy hanging lamps.
Muslims believe that God created everything beautifully and perfectly. In order to thank him for creating so many things, people create more artworks over time.
A vault is a structural element in building construction that consists of an arrangement of arches, commonly forming a ceiling or roof. The fundamental barrel shape, which originated in ancient Egypt and the Middle East, is essentially a continuous succession of arches deep enough to fill a three-dimensional space. Although vaults are often thought of as two-dimensional structures, they can be made from any number of arches. There are many varieties of vault, including half-barrel, groin, pointed, polygonal, and dome.
Barrel vaults were popular in Europe from the 11th through the 14th centuries. They're named after the traditional shape of their supporting beams - a single beam with a circular cross section called a "barrel" - which might be carved from a single tree or obtained by cutting sections out of several trees joined together at the ends. In France these beams were usually painted black to match the background from which they were carved.
In architecture a vault is a roof formed by a series of intersecting ribs or joists covered with material such as plaster or steel. The ribs may be straight or curved, but they must always remain above the level of the walls they support. In addition to roofs, vaults are used for ceilings, because they do not require supporting beams below them.
Taharqa constructed the biggest pyramid in the Nubian area (52 square meters at the base) at Nuri (near El-Kurru), as well as the most ornate Kushite rock-cut tomb. Taharqa was laid to rest with "about 1070 shabtis of varied sizes constructed of granite, green ankerite, and alabaster." His son, Nebka, continued his work.
The Nuri Pyramid is one of the largest pyramids in Africa. It was built for King Taharqa, who ruled from 724 to 720 BC. The pyramid is made of dark gray granite and has three steps leading up to a flat top covered in smooth stone. Inside the pyramid, there are two chambers separated by a wall with eight pillars supporting it. There are no traces of paintings or sculpture on the walls or ceiling of either chamber. Underneath the pyramid is a large cache of artifacts that date back as far as 1200 BC.
Taharqa's reign was very successful; he extended the borders of his kingdom until they reached the Nile River near modern Khartoum. However, internal strife caused him to be assassinated when an arrow shot into his chest during a war. His son, Nebka, only six years old at the time of his father's death, took over the kingdom. Nebka's mother, Queen Tetisheri, acted as regent while he was a child.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Vault The fundamental barrel shape, which originated in ancient Egypt and the Middle East, is essentially a continuous succession of arches deep enough to fill a three-dimensional space. A key feature of a true vault is its ability to span multiple rooms without supporting walls. A walled-in area with a vault as its roof is called a crypt.
The word "vault" comes from the Latin vacca, meaning "cow." In architecture, a vault is a roof supported by columns or beams that covers a room, usually containing a number of cells for storage. Vaults have been used since ancient times for shelter and for storing grain. They are found in many buildings, including churches, mosques, and temples.
In Christian churches, vaults are used to separate one part of the church from another or to create more intimate spaces. They often include windows for light and air circulation. Church architects often use trusses to construct strong, lightweight roofs that can cover large areas. Roofs made out of tile or clay are common in Christian countries because they keep out the rain and heat. Wooden ceilings are also used in place of vaults.
In mosques, vaults are used for prayer halls, where the congregation gathers for worship services and lectures. They may contain stained-glass windows for natural light and ventilation or electric lights.
The Jerusalem Old City
|Leadership||Imam Muhammad Ahmad Hussein|
|Location||Old City of Jerusalem|