IoT architecture's three levels It recommends three levels: perception, network, and application. This is the architecture's physical layer. This is where sensors and linked devices come into play, since they collect varied quantities of data based on the project's requirements. The network layer consists of connected objects that send and receive information via IP addresses. Finally, at the application level, we have tools and applications that use the data received by devices in the previous layer.
The Internet of Things can be used in different environments such as home automation, industrial automation, commercial automation, etc. Depending on the context in which it is applied, different technologies can be used at each layer of the architecture.
At the perception layer, we can use cameras to monitor our living spaces or industrial equipment for abnormalities. At this stage, the data sent by the sensors is in text form and requires processing before being useful. For example, if a sensor detects a smoke alarm going off, it will send a message to any device within range describing the situation and its location. The application layer then uses this information to open doors or turn off lights automatically.
Sensors can also measure other things than fire or intrusion, such as temperature, humidity, vibration, light intensity, sound, GPS location, and so on.
The perception layer, the network layer, and the application layer comprise this architecture (Figure 3). Each layer is described briefly below: The perception layer's major purpose is to perceive the physical attributes of items around us that are part of the IoT. These items can be people, places, or things. The perception layer receives input from sensors used by IoT devices to collect information about their surroundings. Examples include GPS receivers, radars, optical cameras, and microphones. The perception layer then processes this data using algorithms to determine properties such as a person's location or the severity of traffic congestion. It may also use this information to activate other devices in the environment or perform certain actions itself.
The network layer provides connectivity between the sensing devices and other connected devices or systems. For example, an item monitoring door locks would need a way for one door lock to send its status to another door lock through the network layer. The application layer is where operational rules and structures are defined for the sensing device or item being monitored. For example, if a car is monitoring its own fuel level, it would need access to information about current prices for used cars in the area. The application layer would get this information from the network layer after asking it to find used car prices online.
IoT devices must communicate with each other over short distances (typically within 1 km) to ensure the accuracy of data received by each device. This is called proximity communication.
The IoT technology stack includes everything from IoT devices, sensors, actuators, and gateways to IoT platforms. An examination of IoT technology and the initial tiers of the IoT technology stack: IoT devices (including sensors and actuators), IoT gateways (including device management), and IoT platforms. These components work together to enable connectivity between the physical world and the Internet.
IoT devices consist of three main parts: hardware, software, and connectivity. Hardware consists of the actual machinery used for measurement (sensors) or control (actuators). Software controls how these pieces of equipment operate. Connectivity allows the equipment to communicate with other devices and systems. For example, a sensor might measure temperature and humidity, while an actuator could be used to turn on a heater if it gets too cold in a building.
IoT gateways provide an interface between connected devices and the cloud. They typically include functions like security, device management, and data filtering. Gateways can also connect directly to the cloud, but this functionality is provided by separate service providers. IoT platforms are centralized locations where IoT devices and applications can be managed and where data can be stored. They often include databases, web servers, and APIs that can be used by both consumers and developers.
These are just some of the many technologies involved in the development of IoT solutions. There are many more, including communication protocols, data types, and storage techniques.
The application layer of the Internet is believed to be layer 7, the transport layer is layer 4, the IP (internetworking or simply network) layer is layer 3, and the link or subnet layer is layer 2. Three aspects of the Internet architecture deserve special attention. First, the fact that no single company controls any aspect of the infrastructure allows for innovation and evolution without interference from outside parties.
The second important feature of the Internet's design is its distributed nature. The original designers intended the Internet to be a global communications system that would be able to accommodate more users than traditional communication systems could. To do this, they decided not to place any restrictions on who can connect to what part of the network. Any individual or organization can set up their own computer on the Internet by purchasing IP addresses from one of several companies that offer this service. They can then connect other computers or devices (such as phones, tablets, or television sets) to these computers via a device called a router. Routers act as intermediaries between different parts of the Internet so that packets can be sent from one location to another.
The last important characteristic of the Internet is its ability to survive damage. As mentioned earlier, the core of the Internet is made up of thousands of large organizations that maintain and operate their own networks in order to connect with other networks around the world.
The networked items, often wireless sensors and actuators, comprise Stage 1 of an IoT architecture. Sensor data gathering systems and analog-to-digital data conversion are included in Stage 2. In Stage 3, edge IT systems preprocess data before it is sent to the data center or cloud. In Stage 4, the data center or cloud processes the information and generates insights. These insights can then be leveraged by other systems in another stage or at the end user device.
The five stages are conceptual frameworks for thinking about how data flows through an IoT system. They are not strict phases that must be completed in order to deploy an IoT solution. Rather, they are ways of grouping related activities and defining where data goes within the context of an overall solution.
Stage 1: Sensors. Physical devices that collect data about their environment and pass that data along with energy supplies back to a central server. The most common type of sensor is a transducer (for example, a microphone or light detector) connected to a microcontroller. Modern sensors can capture data continuously and store it in internal memory or send it over a network interface without human intervention.
Sensors measure physical quantities such as temperature, humidity, and vibration. They can also detect events, such as when water enters a room from a broken window or oil leaks from a vehicle engine. Automotive sensors typically measure environmental conditions such as pressure, oxygen concentration, and temperature.
IoT system architecture is sometimes defined as a four-stage process in which data travels from sensors connected to "things" to a network and finally to a corporate data center or the cloud for processing, analysis, and storage. Although this definition is useful for understanding the overall nature of an IoT system, it can be difficult to apply to specific examples.
Stage 1: Sensing - Devices measure their environment and communicate events or data points to controllers or servers. Stage 2: Control - Controllers send messages back to devices to change their behavior or trigger other actions. For example, a controller might send a message to a light switch ordering it to turn on its assigned apartment unit. Stage 3: Information - Servers or databases store information collected by things. They may also provide interfaces where you can view or search for this information. For example, a server could store photos taken by a camera attached to a lamp post. Stage 4: Action - Systems use the gathered information to take subsequent actions. For example, a business's security system might send an alert if there is smoke detected in one of the building's apartments. The system can then make decisions about whether to activate the fire alarm or not based on this new information.
There are many ways that these stages can be combined. For example, sensors and actuators can work together to create a smart home.