Buildings are classified into five classes based on their construction: fire-resistant, non-combustible, ordinary, heavy timber, and wood-framed. Fire-resistant buildings must meet certain requirements to be labeled as such. These requirements include having a continuous surface of rated fireproofing material applied to the interior side of the walls and roof assemblies; no openings more than 1/4 inch in diameter located between floors or between floors and ceilings; and fire-rated doors and windows. Non-combustible buildings use materials that do not burn for structural components of the building. These components include steel frames with plastic or rubber wallcoverings and concrete floor slabs. Ordinary structures are made from wood and have a combustible component (i.e., roofs, exterior walls) whose construction is similar to that used for fire-resistant buildings. Heavy timber buildings are constructed with beams, columns, and floors of lumber at least 2 inches thick. Wood-framed buildings have exterior walls composed mainly of wood framing covered by siding or plaster.
Fire-resistant buildings should also have smoke-ventilation systems installed to provide fresh air within the building during fires. Smoke-ventilation systems may consist of fireplaces with chimneys, roof vents, or window fans that can draw outside air into the building.
To account for the reaction that a structure will have to a fire that arises within the building as a result of the occupancy it serves, it is critical to appropriately identify a building by its type of construction. Every building must be classed as one of five different styles of construction, according to the building code. These are brick, concrete, steel, wood, and masonry.
The classification system is based on how the building is made. The style indicates the main material used to build the structure. For example, a brick building is constructed of thin layers of clay bonded together with water. Concrete buildings are made of graded mixes of sand and cement which are molded into shape and allowed to harden before other work is done. Steel buildings are frame structures made of metal angles and bars onto which sheet metal is welded to make walls and ceilings. Wooden buildings are constructed of wood panels joined together with adhesive strips or screws. Masonry buildings are made of stone or brick and are stuccoed or veneered with plaster or another material to look like stone.
Each style has several variations or adaptations of its own. For example, a brick building can be two-story or three-story, but it always consists of multiple units built around a central core. The size of each unit varies depending on the style; however, they all contain the same number of bricks.
Building types include:
Method 1 of 7: Construction Type Assessment Overview
Here is a quick rundown of the seven distinct types of industrial buildings:
In general, there are three sorts of structures in building. The decision is determined by the extent, kind, and economy of building, as well as the type of terrain. They are: temporary, semi-permanent, and permanent.
Temporary structures are usually made of light materials that can be easily transported and assembled by unskilled labor at any desired location. These include tents, tarpits, awnings, and shacks. Semi-permanent structures are generally more stable than temporary ones and use similar materials for construction. They include huts, shanties, and cottages. Permanent structures are built with solid materials that do not require constant maintenance and have fixed roofs which provide protection from the elements. They include houses, apartments, warehouses, and factories.
The choice of structural type depends on the usage requirements for the building. For example, a cottage would not need to be as strong or as durable as a house but should still provide comfortable living conditions.
Structural engineering involves the design and construction of buildings and other physical infrastructure systems such as bridges, roads, and dams. It also includes the analysis of existing structures for improvement or rehabilitation projects.
This field has been dominated by engineers who specialize in one of two areas: codes and standards or project management.